Iran Nuclear Deal – UPSC Prelims

Iran Nuclear Deal or Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA):
  • Also known as Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA).
  • An agreement on Iranian nuclear program.
    • Signed between Iran and P5+1
    • P5 refers to UN Security Council’s 5 permanent members (P5)namely France, United Kingdom, China, Russia, and US;
    • Plus Germany and European Union in Vienna on July 14, 2015.
  • Under the deal, Iran agreed to curb its nuclear activity in return for the lifting of sanctions and access to global trade.
  • The agreement allowed Iran to accumulate small amounts of uranium for research but it banned the enrichment of uranium, which is used to make reactor fuel and nuclear weapons.
  • Iran was also required to redesign a heavy-water reactor being built, whose spent fuel would contain plutonium suitable for a bomb and to allow international inspections.
  • USA Sanctions Timeline:
    • In May 2018, the USA abandoned the deal criticising it as flawed and reinstated and tightened its sanctions.
    • Since sanctions were tightened, Iran has been steadily breaking some of its commitments to pressure the remaining signatories to find a way to provide sanctions relief.
    • In Feb 2002, US has again given waiver from sanction to Iran. The waiver allows other countries and companies to participate in Iran’s civilian nuclear programme without triggering US sanctions on them, in the name of promoting safety and non-proliferation.
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