India’s Domestic Legal Framework for Wildlife Conservation – UPSC Prelims

India’s Domestic Legal Framework for Wildlife Conservation:
  • Constitutional Provisions for Wildlife:
    • By the 42nd Amendment Act 1976 of the Constitution “Forests” was added as Entry 17A in the Concurrent List and the “protection of wild animals and birds” was added as Entry 17B.
    • Article 51 A (g) of the Constitution states that it shall be the fundamental duty of every citizen to protect and improve the natural environment including forests and Wildlife.
    • Article 48 A in the Directive Principles of State policy, mandates that the State shall endeavor to protect and improve the environment and to safeguard the forests and wildlife of the country.
  • Legal Framework:
    • Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972
    • Environment Protection Act, 1986
    • The Biological Diversity Act, 2002
  • India’s Collaboration With Global Wildlife Conservation Efforts:
    • Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES)
    • Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals (CMS)
    • Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD)
    • World Heritage Convention
    • Ramsar Convention
    • The Wildlife Trade Monitoring Network (TRAFFIC)
    • United Nations Forum on Forests (UNFF)
    • International Whaling Commission (IWC)
    • International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN)
    • Global Tiger Forum (GTF)