State of Food and Agriculture Report 2020 : FAO – UPSC GS3

Food and Agriculture Organization(FAO) has released a report titled “State of Food and Agriculture Report 2020”.
Focus Area: The report aims to present new estimates on the pervasiveness of water scarcity in irrigated agriculture and of water shortages in rainfed agriculture, as well as on the number of people affected.
Key Findings:
  • Water stress: 
    • About 1.2 billion people globally experienced very high levels of water stress.
    • From these, nearly half live in Southern Asia and about 460 million live in Eastern and South-eastern Asia.
  • Drought affected areas: 
    • About 11% of the world’s rainfed cropland or 128 million hectares face frequent drought.
  • Freshwater: 
    • The annual amount of available freshwater resources per person had declined by more than 20% in the past two decades.
  • Achieving efficient, equitable and sustainable water use in agriculture.
  • Transparent water accounting and auditing
  • Making better use of rainwater in rainfed areas
  • Investing in sustainable irrigation for improved water productivity
  • Investing in non-consumptive uses of water – for instance in aquaculture – and in non-conventional sources of water such as water reuse and desalination.
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