Initiatives to Secure Borders – UPSC GS3

Initiatives to Secure Borders:
  • Vibrant Villages Programme:
    • New Vibrant Villages Programme announced in the Budget 2022-23.
    • It will include construction of village infrastructure, housing, tourist centres, road connectivity, provisioning of decentralized renewable energy, direct to home access for Doordarshan and educational channels, and support for livelihood generation.
    • The move has been taken to counter the Chinese ‘model villages’ close to the LAC (Line of Actual Control).
    • It will be an improved version of the existing border area development programme.
  • Border Area Development Programme:
    • BADP was initiated in the border areas of the western region during the Seventh Five Year Plan (1985-90), for ensuring balanced development of border areas through development of infrastructure and promotion of a sense of security among the border population.
    • The programme aims to meet the special development needs of the people living in remote and inaccessible areas situated near the international border and to saturate the border areas with the essential infrastructure through convergence of Central/State/BADP/Local schemes and participatory approach.
  • Smart Fencing in India (CIBMS):
    • Two pilot projects covering about 71 Kms on Indo-Pakistan Border (10 Kms) and Indo-Bangladesh Border (61 Kms) of Comprehensive Integrated Border Management System (CIBMS) have been completed.
    • CIBMS involves deployment of a range of state-of-the-art surveillance technologies — thermal imagers, infra-red and laser-based intruder alarms, aerostats for aerial surveillance, unattended ground sensors that can help detect intrusion bids, radars, sonar systems to secure riverine borders, fibre-optic sensors and a command and control system that shall receive data from all surveillance devices in real time.
    • BOLD-QIT (Border Electronically Dominated QRT Interception Technique) under CIBMS on the Indo- Bangladesh border in Dhubri district of Assam is also being used.
  • Border Road Organization:
    • Founded in 1960, the organisation plays a major role in providing defence infrastructure including roads, bridges, highways, airports, tunnels, buildings and other such structures.
    • BRO. has constructed lifelines of over 53,600 km for the people of Sikkim, Arunachal Pradesh, Mizoram, Manipur, Nagaland, Tripura, Meghalaya, Ladakh, Jammu & Kashmir, Uttarakhand, Himachal Pradesh and Andaman & Nicobar Islands.
  • Border Infrastructure and Management:
    • Ministry of Home Affairs has approved the continuation of the Central Sector Umbrella Scheme of “Border Infrastructure and Management” (BIM) over the 15th Finance Commission Cycle from 2021-22 to 2025-26, at a cost of Rs.13,020 crore.
    • The BIM scheme will help in the creation of infrastructure such as border fence, border flood lights, technological solutions, border roads and Border OutPosts (BOPs) and company operating bases to secure India’s borders with Pakistan, Bangladesh, China, Nepal, Bhutan and Myanmar.
    • It will strengthen the border infrastructure for improving border management, policing and guarding the borders.
India’s Borders:
India’s border with Pakistan is 3,323 km long, including about 775 km of the Line of Control. The length of the border is 4,096 km with Bangladesh, 3,488 km with China, 1,751 km with Nepal, 699 km with Bhutan, 1,643 km with Myanmar.
Main Threat
What needs to be done?
What has been done?
War, insurgency,  smuggling.
C.I.B.M.S.  monitoring with a well-trained and larger BOLD-QIT, more than one route  connecting far flung areas, especially Jammu and Kashmir
C.I.B.M.S. in some  stretches, 3rd route to Leh to be opened by 2023.
Armoured vehicle  capable infrastructure, high altitude airfields.
Daulet Beg Oldie  airfield running, some bridges and tunnels armoured vehicle capable.
Smuggling, human  trafficking
C.I.B.M.S.  monitoring with BOLD-QIT throughout including riverine stretches
Brahmaputra river  covered, rivulets still remaining.
Smuggling, human  trafficking
C.I.B.M.S.  monitoring with BOLD-QIT
Planning stage.
Armoured vehicle  capable road connectivity till Bhutan-China border.
B.R.O. working on  it.
Smuggling,  insurgency, trafficking.
C.I.B.M.S.  monitoring with bigger and more efficient BOLD-QIT to tackle insurgency,  roads for swift troop movements
Some roads  present. C.I.B.M.S. planning stage.
Related Questions:
  1. Border management is a complex task due to difficult terrain and hostile relations with some countries. Elucidate the challenges and strategies for effective border management. (UPSC Mains 2016)
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