Floriculture – UPSC GS3

Floriculture in India is a sector with the potential to bloom.
Floriculture in India
  • Beginning:  Began in India in the early 1990s due to liberalisation of the seed policy in 1988.
  • Growth of the sector:
    • Area under floral crops has expanded 4.4 times since 2001.
    • Production has risen 5.6 times.
    • With an annual output of around 2.86 million tonnes, India became the world’s second-largest grower of flowers, next to China.
  • Recognised as an export-oriented Industry: by the Government industry due to steadily swelling local demand.
Problems associated with floriculture in India
  • Low share in the global floriculture trade: 
    • It stands at 0.4 %, despite India exporting to 130 countries.
    • At present, India’s floricultural exports are between Rs 450-600 crore a year.
  • Cultivation of loose flowers still dominates: 
    • Which are not of export quality.
    • Flowers like Marigold, Jasmine, Rose, Chrysanthemum, Gaillardia, Crossandra, and a few others, account for over 98 % of production.
  • Low acreage for floriculture cultivation: Estimated at around 313,000 hectares in 2018-19, constitutes less than 0.8 % of the cultivated land.
  • Lack of market intelligence: In terms of global demand, supply, and price trend projections.
  • Growing competition: From China, Nepal, Sri Lanka, and Pakistan.
Potential for India in floriculture
  • High number of markets: India is currently exporting to 130 countries.
  • Entry of the corporate sector in the post-economic liberalisation era: It facilitated the transformation of floral farming into hi-tech floriculture to produce export-quality cut flowers.
  • Development of indigenous technologies: evolved by various research institutions of the Indian Council of Agricultural Research and state agricultural universities.
  • Climatic advantages to grow flowers.
Conclusion: India’s floriculture research network should work to make India technologically ahead of its competitors.
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