Drought : Global Assessment Report – UPSC GS3

Global Assessment Report (GAR) on Drought 2021:
  • The report explores the systemic nature of drought and its impacts on the achievement of the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction, the SDGs, and human and ecosystem, health and wellbeing.
  • The UN Office for Disaster Risk Reduction(UNDRR) has released a report titled “Global Assessment Report (GAR) on Drought 2021”.
Key Findings of the Report:
  • Around 20 million people across Africa and the Middle East are on the brink of starvation due to droughts.
  • Around 700 million people are at risk of being displaced as a result of drought by 2030.
  • Two-third of the world will be under water-stressed conditions by 2025.
  • The effect of severe droughts on India’s gross domestic product (GDP) is estimated at 2-5%.
  • The Deccan region sees the highest frequency (>6%) of severe droughts in all of India.
  • Significant drought conditions are found once every three years in the Deccan plateau, leading to large-scale migration and desertification.
  • Overdependence on groundwater resources and lack of water-retaining structures have significantly increased vulnerability in Indian cities during severe drought events.
  • Prevention: Prevention has far lower human, financial and environmental costs than reaction and response.
  • Risk Governance: Increased understanding of complex systemic risks and improved risk governance can lead to effective action on drought risk.
  • Partnerships: Drought resilience partnerships at the national and local levels will be critical for managing drought in a warming world.
  • Management Mechanisms: A mechanism for drought management at the international and national levels could help address the complex and cascading nature of drought risk.
  • Financial Systems: Financial systems and services must evolve to encourage cooperative approaches, promote social protection mechanisms and encourage risk transfer and contingent financing.
  • Inclusion: New pathways are needed to encourage the inclusion of indigenous and local knowledge and the effective sharing of drought risk management experiences.
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