Climate Summit : Revised NDCs – UPSC GS3

About Summit:
  • The two-day Leaders Climate Summit was hosted by the US virtually.
  • It was attended by leaders of more than 40 countries amongst whom many have resorted to new NDCs targets and climate commitments.
New Targets and Commitments as part of NDCs:
  • US:  It has pledged to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions 50-52 per cent below 2005 levels by 2030.The country aspires to attain net zero emissions status before 2050. Also, it committed to double its annual public climate finance to developing countries by 2024.
  • Japan: It has pledged to reduce emissions by 46 per cent from 2013 levels by 2030.
  • Canada: It has pledged to cut emissions by 40-45 per cent from 2005 levels by 2030.
  • EU: It has shown a commitment to reduce emissions by 55 per cent from 1990 levels by 2030.
  • U.K: It has shown a commitment to reduce emissions by 78 per cent from 1990 levels by 2035.
  • India: It didn’t announce any updated NDC. However, India reached a consensus with the US over a new India-US Climate and Clean Energy Agenda 2030 Partnership. It aims to mobilize investments in clean technologies for industry, transportation, power, and buildings.
Analysing the new targets of Leaders Climate Summit:
  • The new 50-52% reduction target of the U.S is 12 percent higher than its previous commitment. As its previous NDC worked out to a 38 percent reduction by 2030.
  • Similarly, the targets of Japan, EU, U.K, and Canada are greater than their previous emission targets.
  • U.K’s commitments and targets are the most ambitious amongst all the countries.
  • Although the U.S has increased the commitment, it falls short of a 1.5˚C-compatible 2030 target as per the Climate Action Tracker (CAT). The commitment is even short of a  Fair Shares NDC estimate.
  • The fair share of the US is 70 percent domestic emissions’ reduction below 2005 levels by 2030 and a further 125 percent reduction abroad through support to developing countries.
Way Ahead:
  • The summit has put climate back on the agenda and forced leaders of major economies to confront the scale of the task ahead.
  • The U.S should adopt a  57-63 % domestic target to be 1.5˚C compatible by 2030 as per CAT.
  • Further, the U.S must adhere to the recommendations of  Fair Share NDC analysis. It recommends:
    • A climate finance contribution of $800 billion between 2021-2030
    • Use of Special Drawing Rights (SDR) of $3 trillion to help developing countries
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