Northern Plains

How did Northern Plains of India originate? Describe their prominent features and their importance to India’s economy. (200 Words)

The great Northern Plains of India are an aggradation surface of great extent formed after the Himalayas. They are comparatively of recent origin and are believed to have formed by the filling up of a depression resulting from the uplifting of the Himalayas, by deposition of sediments brought by swift-flowing Himalayan rivers, originated in Himalayas.
  • The most characteristic feature of the great plains of Northern India is their extreme horizontality. From the geomorphological aspect there is no difference between the Indus basin and the Ganga-Brahmaputra basin.
  • They are classified into four distinct divisions:
    • Bhabar belt: made up of pebbles and boulders, the streams flow underground, adjacent to foothills
    • Terai belt: composed of new alluvium, region is damped and thickly forested and receives heavy rainfall throughout the year and has a variety of wildlife.
    • Bangar Belt: composed of old alluvium, forms Gangetic delta, covered by laterite deposits
    • Khadar Belt: made up of new alluvium of the flood zones.
  • Economic Importance of Northern Plains:
    • Northern Plains produces 60% of food in India. It is home to around 65 crore people.
    • Himalayan forests have several wildlife species, and these forests are also having species for medicinal use. Agriculture, livestock, power plants, industries and tourism provide employment to more than half of population in India.