Iran nuclear deal
- It is officially called the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA).
- It was signed between Iran and the P5, plus Germany and the EU in 2015. P5 is the 5 permanent members of the UNSC (US, China, France, Russia, and UK).
- The deal aimed at curbing Iran’s nuclear programme.
- Under the deal most of Iran’s enriched uranium was shipped out of the country.
- A heavy water facility was rendered inoperable
- Operational nuclear facilities were brought under international inspection
- In return, the deal involved lifting of international sanctions on Iran.
What happened after the deal?
- October 2015: Iran conducts its first ballistic missile test since the nuclear deal. The US accuses Iran of violating a UN Security Council resolution, but former President Barack Obama acknowledges that ballistic missiles are “entirely separate” from the nuclear deal.
- Jan 2016: The IAEA acknowledges Iran has met its commitments under the nuclear deal, which sees most sanctions on Iran lifted. It takes time but Iran re-enters the global banking system and begins selling crude oil and natural gas on the international market. Next day, the US imposes sanctions over Iran’s ballistic missile tests.
- October 2018: Trump announces he will not re-certify the Iran nuclear deal as required, criticizing the accord by saying it “threw Iran’s dictatorship a political and economic lifeline”.
What are US’s present concerns?
- Trump administration says the deal did not target Iran’s ballistic missile programme.
- It does not focus on Iran’s nuclear activities beyond 2025.
- It also leaves Iran’s role in conflicts in Yemen and Syria.