Space elevator

Are you the ONE who don't like to take chances and waste one precious year by failing in Prelims?

Do you want to test your knowledge after reading a particular topic? Then The MCQ Factory (TMF) is for you! It provides topic wise high quality MCQs for testing your knowledge in a particular topic. More details here

  • It is proposed type of planet-to-space transportation system.
  • Its components mainly are cable (also called tether) anchored to surface of planet and extending into space.
  • It will permit vehicles to travel along cable from planetary surface, such as Earth’s, directly into space or orbit, without use of large rockets.
  • The idea of space elevator was first proposed in 1895 by Russian scientist Konstantin Tsiolkovsky after he saw Eiffel Tower in Paris and later it was revisited nearly century later in novel by Arthur C. Clarke.
  • The one end of cable of space elevator will be attached near to surface and the other end in space beyond geostationary orbit (35,786 km altitude).
  • The competing forces of gravity, which is stronger at lower end and outward or upward centrifugal force, which is stronger at upper end, will result in the cable being held up, under tension, and stationary over single position on Earth.
  • Once cable (tether) is deployed at fixed position, climbers can repeatedly climb it to venture into space by mechanical means, releasing their cargo to orbit.
  • Climbers also can descend tether to return cargo to surface from orbit.

Space-elevator

Aeolus satellite

Are you the ONE who don't like to take chances and waste one precious year by failing in Prelims?

Do you want to test your knowledge after reading a particular topic? Then The MCQ Factory (TMF) is for you! It provides topic wise high quality MCQs for testing your knowledge in a particular topic. More details here

  • It is a wind-sensing satellite launched by European Space Agency (ESA).
  • The satellite is named Aeolus after guardian of wind in Greek mythology.
  • It will be placed at altitude of 320km above the Earth.
  • It is part of the Copernicus project, a joint initiative of European Union (EU) and European Space Agency (ESA) to track environmental damage and aid disaster relief operations.
  • Aeolus satellite is equipped with single instrument Doppler wind lidar (named Aladin), which is an advanced laser system designed to accurately measure global wind patterns from space.
  • It will probe lower layers of atmosphere, down to altitude of about 30 km to yield vertical profiles of wind and information on aerosols and clouds.
  • Significance: Aeolus satellite will provide much-needed data to improve quality and accuracy of weather forecasting. It will help to improve understanding of working of atmosphere dynamics and contribute to climate change research.

 

ias4sure.com - Aeolus satellite

Working of Doppler LIDAR

  • It transmits short, powerful pulses of laser light toward Earth in ultraviolet (UV) spectrum.
  • Particles in air (such as moisture, dust, gases) scatter small fraction of that light energy back to transceiver, where it is collected and recorded.
  • The delay between outgoing pulse and so-called backscattered signal reveals wind’s direction, speed and distance travelled.

Manned space mission by 2022

Are you the ONE who don't like to take chances and waste one precious year by failing in Prelims?

Do you want to test your knowledge after reading a particular topic? Then The MCQ Factory (TMF) is for you! It provides topic wise high quality MCQs for testing your knowledge in a particular topic. More details here

Context:

  • Prime Minister Narendra Modi as part of his 72nd Independence Day speech vowed to put Indian in space by 2022 under manned space mission on board ‘Gaganyaan’.
  • This announcement gives Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) definitive timeline for manned space mission it has been working on for the last 15 years.

ias4sure.com - Manned space mission by 2022

 

Developments till now:

  • The proposed human spaceflight programme (HSP) has been on table since 2004.
  • ISRO is still long way away, despite advancements in some critical technologies in past decade.
  • It is stilling building its capabilities and developing critical technologies required to send astronaut being into space.
  • The mission will be completed at budget of Rs 10,000 crore and some of technology components required for it already have been developed.
  • This includes heavy-lift launch vehicle (GLSV Mark-III), re-entry and recovery technology, crew module, Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) and astronaut training.
  • The required key technologies ISRO still has to develop for such mission are : ability to launch, recover and ensure earth-like conditions for astronauts. I

Note: If successful, India will become fourth nation in the world to send astronaut into space after US, Russia and China. Former Indian Air Force (IAF) pilot Rakesh Sharma was first Indian to travel to space. He was part of the Soviet Union’s Soyuz T-11 expedition, launched on April 2, 1984, as part of the Intercosmos programme.

Key Features of Mission

  • The entire cost of Gaganyaan mission will be less than Rs 10,000 crore.
  • It will be totally indigenous, very cost-effective mission by Indian standards which is not viable from international standards.
  • Prior to actual launch of this manned mission by 2022, ISRO will launch  two unmanned Gaganyaan missions (first in 30 months’ time and then 36 months).
  • Launch Phase: 
    • GSLV Mk-III launch vehicle will be used to launch Gaganyaan as it has necessary payload capability for this mission.
    • The spacecraft will comprise of crew module and service module that constitute orbital.
    • It weighs approximately 7 tonnes and will be placed in low earth orbit (LEO) of 300-400 km. Crew module’s size will be 3.7 meters and of service module will be 7 meters.
  • Orbital Phase: 
    • The mission will send three-member crew to space for period of five to seven days.
    • The launch vehicle will take off from spaceport of Sriharikota, Andhra Pradesh and it will reach desired orbit in 16 minutes.
    • The crew will be selected by Indian Air Force (IAF) and ISRO jointly after which they will undergo training for two-three years.
    • It will conduct microgravity experiment during the mission.
  • Re-entry phase:
    • The velocity of whole module will be reduced and will be turned in opposite direction so that it can start to come down.
    • When it will reach distance of 120 km from Earth’s surface, service module will be removed and separated out.
    • The module carrying crew alone will come back to earth, this will take about 36 minutes to reach Earth.
    • ISRO is planning to land crew module in Arabian Sea, closer to Gujarat coast or in Bay of Bengal or even on land from where the crew will be recovered
  • Execution time: 
    • The mission may be executed six months before India completes its 75th Independence Day in 2022. It is expected to be completed before 2022.

Questions:

  • Does India need it now?

ias4sure.com - Manned space mission by 2022

 

 

Xingkong-2

Are you the ONE who don't like to take chances and waste one precious year by failing in Prelims?

Do you want to test your knowledge after reading a particular topic? Then The MCQ Factory (TMF) is for you! It provides topic wise high quality MCQs for testing your knowledge in a particular topic. More details here

ias4sure.com - Xingkong-2

  • It is cutting-edge hypersonic “waverider” flight vehicle being developed by China.
  • Waverider is flight vehicle that flies in atmosphere and uses shockwaves generated by its own hypersonic flight with air to glide at high speed.
  • It can carry can carry both conventional and nuclear warheads.
  • It has capability to penetrate any current generation anti-missile defence systems due to its high speed and unpredictable trajectory.
  • As compared to it, current generation of anti-missile defence systems is mainly designed to intercept cruise and ballistic missiles which are either slower or easier to predict, making them possible to intercept.

Gaofen 11

Are you the ONE who don't like to take chances and waste one precious year by failing in Prelims?

Do you want to test your knowledge after reading a particular topic? Then The MCQ Factory (TMF) is for you! It provides topic wise high quality MCQs for testing your knowledge in a particular topic. More details here

  • It is an optical remote sensing satellite launched by China.
  • It will become part of China High-resolution Earth Observation System (CHEOS)  initiated in 2010 to provide all-weather, all-day coverage by 2020.
  • It will be used for land survey, urban planning, road network design, agriculture, and disaster relief.
лªÉçÕÕƬ£¬Ì«Ô­£¬2018Äê7ÔÂ31ÈÕ     ÎÒ¹ú³É¹¦·¢Éä¸ß·ÖʮһºÅÎÀÐÇ     7ÔÂ31ÈÕ11ʱ£¬ÎÒ¹úÔÚÌ«Ô­ÎÀÐÇ·¢ÉäÖÐÐÄÓó¤Õ÷ËĺÅÒÒÔËÔØ»ð¼ý£¬³É¹¦½«¸ß·ÖʮһºÅÎÀÐÇ·¢ÉäÉý¿Õ£¬ÎÀÐǽøÈëÔ¤¶¨¹ìµÀ¡£     лªÉç¼ÇÕß ²ÜÑô Éã
лªÉçÕÕƬ£¬Ì«Ô­£¬2018Äê7ÔÂ31ÈÕ
ÎÒ¹ú³É¹¦·¢Éä¸ß·ÖʮһºÅÎÀÐÇ
7ÔÂ31ÈÕ11ʱ£¬ÎÒ¹úÔÚÌ«Ô­ÎÀÐÇ·¢ÉäÖÐÐÄÓó¤Õ÷ËĺÅÒÒÔËÔØ»ð¼ý£¬³É¹¦½«¸ß·ÖʮһºÅÎÀÐÇ·¢ÉäÉý¿Õ£¬ÎÀÐǽøÈëÔ¤¶¨¹ìµÀ¡£
лªÉç¼ÇÕß ²ÜÑô Éã

Weaponization of space

Are you the ONE who don't like to take chances and waste one precious year by failing in Prelims?

Do you want to test your knowledge after reading a particular topic? Then The MCQ Factory (TMF) is for you! It provides topic wise high quality MCQs for testing your knowledge in a particular topic. More details here

Context
  • U.S. President Donald Trump has announced the creation of a “space force” or a sixth branch of the American armed forces.
  • America’s attempt to weaponize space goes back to Cold War era an example being the Strategic Defence Initiative of the Reagan Administration.

What is a Space Force?

  • The Space Force will be a new department of the US military which Trump has described as “separate but equal”.
  • According to the plan, the Space Force will comprise three units.
  • The Space Command will be led by a four-star general to oversee warfighting operations.
  • The Space Development Agency will identify and develop new technologies.
  • The third unit is the Space Operations Force, made up of leaders and fighters for their expertise.
 
Why is this important for USA?
  • The intention is to see that the U.S. establishes and maintains dominance in space.
  • The purpose being to deny the Russians and the Chinese advantages in space.
  • There is exponential growth in China’s space military capabilities over the last two decades.
Opposition within USA?
  • What advantages it will bring to American war-fighting capabilities are still unclear.
  • U.S. Air Force — historically a major constituency and votary for space weapons — is not entirely enthusiastic about this new service, which could take resources away from it and the prestige
  • Adding another military arm would only compound the organisational challenges facing the U.S. armed services.
  • Objections have also emerged from within the Administration.
  • First, it could undercut ongoing missions
  • Second, it could very well increase budgetary allocations in the future.
  • Third, a space corps could undermine American efforts in the domain of joint warfare.
  • Nevertheless, the fundamental difficulty of a space corps is that the physical environment of space is not conducive to the conduct of military operations without incurring serious losses in the form of spacecraft and debris. And despite efforts to make spacecraft more fuel efficient, the energy requirements are enormous.
 
China and Russia’s responses
  • China has reiterated it opposes the weaponization of space. With a range of terrestrial interests in direct conflict with the Americans, Beijing will be in no mood to allow U.S. space dominance.
  • Russia has made it clear that it will vigorously take on the U.S. However, given its lack of the resources for competition, it will in all probability, for tactical reasons, align itself with China.
 
Implications for India
  • American military goals, which are still undefined in space, could still have consequences for India.
  • India is officially committed to PAROS, or the prevention of an arms race in outer space, it is yet to formulate a credible official response
  • India has yet to establish a credible space command of its own.
 
Way forward
  • India should come out with an official white paper on space weapons.
  • The government needs to engage with multiple stakeholders directly about the role space weapons will play in India’s grand strategy. More than their war-fighting attributes, space weapons have one principal function — deterrence.

ias4sure.com - Weaponization of space

 
 
Source:

Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS)

Are you the ONE who don't like to take chances and waste one precious year by failing in Prelims?

Do you want to test your knowledge after reading a particular topic? Then The MCQ Factory (TMF) is for you! It provides topic wise high quality MCQs for testing your knowledge in a particular topic. More details here

ias4sure.com - Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS)

 

  • NASA’s project
  • TESS is designed to find potential planets orbiting stars close to Earth.
  • It will identify such planets by spotting decreased brightness of stars after planet passes in front of it.
  • The primary mission objective of TESS is to survey brightest stars near Earth for transiting exoplanets over two-year period.
  • With help of TESS, it will be possible to study mass, size, density and orbit of large cohort of small planets, including sample of rocky worlds in habitable zones (goldilocks zone) of their host stars.
  • This will reveal whether planets are rocky (like Earth), gas or jovian giants (like Jupiter) or something even more unusual.

Parker Solar Probe

Are you the ONE who don't like to take chances and waste one precious year by failing in Prelims?

Do you want to test your knowledge after reading a particular topic? Then The MCQ Factory (TMF) is for you! It provides topic wise high quality MCQs for testing your knowledge in a particular topic. More details here

  • It is NASA’s mission to explore Sun’s outer atmosphere.
  • Aims:
    • To trace how energy and heat move through solar corona.
    • To explore what accelerates solar wind as well as solar energetic particles.
    • Determine structure and dynamics of magnetic fields at sources of solar wind.
    • Explore dusty plasma near Sun and its influence on solar wind and energetic particle formation.
  • It is a robotic spacecraft.
  • It is named after solar astrophysicist Eugene Parker, first spacecraft of NASA to be named after living person.
  • Launched in 2018.
  • In its seven-year mission, PSP will explore Sun’s outer atmosphere and make critical observations to answer questions about physics of stars.
  • Its data will also be useful in improving forecasts of major eruptions on Sun and subsequent space weather events that impact technology on Earth, as well as satellites and astronauts in space.

Chandrayan II

Are you the ONE who don't like to take chances and waste one precious year by failing in Prelims?

Do you want to test your knowledge after reading a particular topic? Then The MCQ Factory (TMF) is for you! It provides topic wise high quality MCQs for testing your knowledge in a particular topic. More details here

  • Chandrayaan II is an advanced version of the previous Chandrayaan-1 mission.
  • It has been developed indigenously by ISRO.
  • It consists of an orbiter, lander and rover configuration.
  • It is planned to be launched as a composite stack into the earth parking orbit (EPO) of 170 X 18,500 km by GSLV-Mk II.
  • The wheeled rover will move on the lunar surface and will pick up soil or rock samples for on-site chemical analysis. The data will be relayed to Earth through the Chandrayaan-2 orbiter.
  • The mission includes soft-landing on Moon and moving a rover on its surface. All three project components will be sending data and pictures to Earth.
  • It will be ISRO’s first inter-planetary mission to land rover on any celestial body.
  • Chandrayaan-2 mission is tentatively set for January 2019.

 

ias4sure.com - Chandrayan II

 

 

Bennu asteroid

Are you the ONE who don't like to take chances and waste one precious year by failing in Prelims?

Do you want to test your knowledge after reading a particular topic? Then The MCQ Factory (TMF) is for you! It provides topic wise high quality MCQs for testing your knowledge in a particular topic. More details here

 ias4sure.com - Bennu asteroid

  • Bennu is near-Earth carbonaceous asteroid about the size of a small mountain in the Apollo group.
  • It is carbon-rich asteroid and believed to be the type of asteroids that may have chemical building blocks of life, along with lots of water.
  • So, analysis of returned sample from it could help to reveal key insights about early solar system and the origin of life on Earth.
  • It can strike earth and cause massive destruction. According to experts, it has a only a one in 2,700 chances of hitting.
  • This event will occur in year 2135