POSHAN Abhiyaan : Analysis

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POSHAN Abhiyan:
  • POSHAN Abhiyaan (National Nutrition Mission) is a flagship programme of the Ministry of Women and Child Development.
  • The Mission is aimed at improving the nutritional status of Children from 0-6 years, Adolescent Girls, Pregnant Women and Lactating Mothers in a time bound manner during the next three years beginning 2017-18.
  • The Abhiyan aims to achieve convergence with various programmes i.e., Anganwadi Services, Pradhan Mantri Matru Vandana Yojana, Scheme for Adolescent Girls, Janani Suraksha Yojana, National Health Mission, Swachh-Bharat Mission, Public Distribution System, Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme.
Analysis:
  • Poshan Abhiyaan which focuses on reducing stunting, under-nutrition and anaemia in women and adolescents through direct cash transfers is a massive step towards eradicating malnutrition.
  • Poshan Abhiyaan has got global recognition for its effort to eradicate malnutrition.
  • Cash transfers under the mission provide an additional support to the family income.
  • The whole issue of malnutrition requires concrete action starting from the grassroot level at households as well as the community level.
  • The first and the most important step for reducing malnutrition in India is providing sufficient nutrition to pregnant and lactating mothers. The child then automatically is at much less risk of being malnourished.

Human Trafficking in India

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Human Trafficking

  • Human Trafficking is the action or practice of illegally transporting people from one country or area to another, typically for the purposes of forced labour or sexual exploitation.
  • According to the data of NCRB, the number of cases of human trafficking has increased over the years in India. The victims of human trafficking are put to sexual exploitation, begging, forced labour as servants etc.

Challenges

  • The lack of data about the victims, sometimes the victims being children or disabled, getting information about their family is difficult.
  • Lack of coordination among NGOs, police & other institutions involved in rescuing
  • The protest by people who are either involved in this business or those who have “purchased” the victim. Such protests can be violent sometimes.
  • Some political leaders & powerful people are also involved in human trafficking. Going against these powerful people creates hindrances.
  • Sometimes victims do not want to go with the NGOs & police because they do not trust them.
  • The issue of shelter-homes where proper food, education, recreation facilities should be available.
  • Issue of security & safety of the victims, especially children, women and disabled
  • After rescuing rehabilitation remain challenge as states capacity is not adequate and NGO are already over numbered with such people.

Suggestions

  • National registry for recording data of the cases of human trafficking.
  • Facilitating state-to-state transfers of the victims, as requested by the Bihar’s NGO to Maharashtra’s CWC.
  • Ensuring proper security, health & educational benefits to the victims in the shelter-homes.
  • Collaboration of civil societies, NGOs & government.
  • Proper rehabilitation policy of the government.

Swachh Bharat Mission Analysis

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Background:

  • 4 years completed
  • The programme aims to eliminate open defecation by 2019, as fitting tribute to the 150th Birth Anniversary of Mahatma Gandhi.
  • The goal also includes the elimination of open defecation, conversion of insanitary toilets to pour flush toilets, eradicating of manual scavenging and Municipal Solid Waste Management (MSWM).
  • It was launched four years ago on the birth anniversary of Mahatma Gandhi. The mission was divided into two parts — urban and rural. The Swachh Bharat Mission Urban is managed by the Ministry of Urban Development, while the Swachh Bharat Mission Gramin (Rural) is led by the Ministry of Drinking Water and Sanitation.

 

Tangible Outcomes:

  • According to Ministry of Drinking Water & Sanitation, rural sanitation coverage of India has risen to 94% under Swachh Bharat Mission.
  • It has successfully built more than 8 crore toilets across rural India through mobilization of rural communities.

 

Prior to Swachh Bharat Mission:

  • With effect from April 1, 1999, the Government of India restructured the Comprehensive Rural Sanitation Programme and launched the Total Sanitation Campaign (TSC).
  • To give a fillip to the TSC, effective June 2003, the government launched an incentive scheme in the form of an award for total sanitation coverage, maintenance of a clean environment and open defecation-free panchayat villages, blocks and districts, called Nirmal Gram Puraskar.
  • Effective April 1, 2012, the TSC was renamed to Nirmal Bharat Abhiyan (SBA). On October 2, 2014 the campaign was relaunched as Swachh Bharat Abhiyan

 

Major Goals:

  • Construction of individual sanitary latrines for households below the poverty line with subsidy (80%) where demand exists.
  • Conversion of dry latrines into low-cost sanitary latrines.
  • Construction of exclusive village sanitary complexes for women providing facilities for hand pumping, bathing, sanitation and washing on a selective basis where there is not adequate land or space within houses and where village panchayats are willing to maintain the facilities.
  • Setting up of sanitary marts.
  • Total sanitation of villages through the construction of drains, soakage pits, solid and liquid waste disposal.
  • Intensive campaign for awareness generation and health education to create a felt need for personal, household and environmental sanitation facilities

 

Missing links in the scheme:

  • Attitudinal changes: People still don’t use toilets even if they are created
  • Water: Toilets are constructed but there is no water to use them
  • Disposal: How to dispose the human waste? This has not been solved.

 

Crucial Policy changes:

  • It is being planned to generate electricity and compost from municipal solid waste.
  • Provide Market Development Assistance on sale of city compost to farmers ( Ministry of Chemicals and Fertilizers)
  • Ministry of Power is in the process of amending the Electricity Act 2003 to enable mandatory purchase of power generated from municipal solid waste.

 

Swachh Bharat Cess:

Swachh Bharat cess of 0.5% on service tax. It will be exclusively used for Swachh Bharat initiatives

 

India Sanitation conference (INDOSAN)

  • INDOSAN is envisaged as an annual national event, that seeks to brings together all stakeholders working in sanitation.
  • Thus, it will be one platform for a shared vision for Government, NGOs, academicians, researchers, partner agencies and corporates.
  • It will create an opportunity for collective understanding, collective vision of the key elements of the Swachh Bharat Mission programme as sanitation is seen as a citizen movement with involvement of all sectors of the society.
  • INDOSAN will discuss on all these approaches, learnings, emerging innovations for the benefit of all.
  • Besides, each state will share their approaches most suitable to them to reach the goal of making India Open Defecation Free (ODF) by the year 2019 which marks 150th Birth Anniversary of Father of the Nation Mahatma Gandhi.

 

NOTE:

Use keywords INDOSAN, Swacch Bharat cess in your answers related to Sanitation or analysis of swacch bharat scheme

 

Source:

http://www.thehindubusinessline.com/multimedia/archive/03144/bl16_Swachh_Bharat_3144456a.pdf