Black Money : Reforms

Are you the ONE who don't like to take chances and waste one precious year by failing in Prelims?

Do you want to test your knowledge after reading a particular topic? Then The MCQ Factory (TMF) is for you! It provides topic wise high quality MCQs for testing your knowledge in a particular topic. More details here

Underreporting of income:

  • 61 individuals has declared an income of more than Rs 100 crore during the assessment year 2017-18.
  • Even though the numbers have increased sharply from the 38 individuals reporting income over Rs 100 Crore in the previous assessment year, it is still a minuscule number in a population of 1.3 billion Indians.
  • Even though there has been a sharp increase in the number of individuals declaring income of over 100 crore, it has been said the actual numbers are predominantly more and reported numbers are less due to the large scale underreporting.

The following steps have been initiated to prevent the under-reporting:

  • Government is taking stringent actions under the Benami Properties Transactions Act and properties valued at Rs 6,900 crore were under attachment by agencies.
  • Income tax authorities had identified more than 2,000 benami transactions till December 2018 which includes include deposits in bank accounts, land, apartments and jewellery and the provisional attachment of properties had been done in over 1,800 cases.
  • The Revenue Department under the Ministry of Finance is setting up a mechanism to ensure that all returns are processed within 24 hours and refunds issued simultaneously to increase the compliance in the filing of IT returns.
  • The government has already sanctioned Rs 4,200 crore for the upgrade of information technology infrastructure of Central Board of Direct Taxes (CBDT) for processing returns, refunds, faceless scrutiny and verification.

Steps to Address Cross-Border Infiltration

Are you the ONE who don't like to take chances and waste one precious year by failing in Prelims?

Do you want to test your knowledge after reading a particular topic? Then The MCQ Factory (TMF) is for you! It provides topic wise high quality MCQs for testing your knowledge in a particular topic. More details here

The cross-border infiltration and illegal immigration are posing serious security threats to both internal and external security. The government has undertaken following steps to arrest the cross-border infiltration:

  • Multipronged approach to check infiltration by
    • patrolling;
    • sharing of intelligence and conduct of joint operations;
    • erection of border fencing;
    • installation of border floodlights;
    • use of watercrafts/boats and floating Border Out Posts (BOPs) for domination of riverine area of the border;
    • liaison with police, intelligence agencies, local government agencies;
    • laying nakas;
    • establishment of observation posts  have been undertaken.
  • Surveillance equipment like Night Vision Devices (NVDs); Hand Held Thermal Imagers (HHTIs); Long Range Recce Observation Systems (LORROS), etc have been deployed for effective technical surveillance.
  • Mobile Vehicle Check Posts (MVCPs), Area Domination Patrols (ADPs), short and long-range patrols along the border are being launched on regular basis.
  • Review of vulnerability mapping of BOPs from the point of infiltration is carried out.
  • Based on threat perception and security requirements, the fencing/ floodlighting has been erected along India-Pakistan and India Bangladesh borders.
  • The constructions of border roads are expedited keeping in view the administrative and operational requirements of the Border guarding forces.

Even then due to hostile, mountainous terrain and porous nature of the border incidents of the infiltrations are still reported.

Clause 6 of the Assam Accord

Are you the ONE who don't like to take chances and waste one precious year by failing in Prelims?

Do you want to test your knowledge after reading a particular topic? Then The MCQ Factory (TMF) is for you! It provides topic wise high quality MCQs for testing your knowledge in a particular topic. More details here

Clause 6 of the Assam Accord

  • The clause 6 of the Assam Accord reads “Constitutional, legislative and administrative safeguards, as may be appropriate, shall be provided to protect, preserve and promote the cultural, social, linguistic identity and heritage of the Assamese people.”
  • The Assam Accord came as a culmination of a movement against immigration from Bangladesh.
  • The cutoff date to be considered as citizens of India under the accord was set at March 24, 1971.
  • The immigrant’s up to March 24, 1971, will get all rights as citizens of India.
  • But the immigrants are not eligible for safeguards meant for Assamese people because the cutoff for defining “Assamese people” eligible for the proposed safeguards was set at National registry of Citizens, 1951.
  • Hence those who migrated between 1951 and 1971 to Assam would be Indian citizens, but would not be eligible for safeguards meant for “Assamese people”.

Why in news?

  • The Union cabinet has approved the setting up of a high-level committee for the implementation of clause 6 of the Assam Accord. 
  • The committee is formed to address the sense of feeling that clause 6 has not been fully implemented even almost 35 years after the accord was signed.

What the committee will look into?

The committee will look into the following aspects:

  • The committee shall examine the effectiveness of actions since 1985 to implement the clause.
  • The committee will suggest constitutional, legislative and administrative safeguards as envisaged in clause 6.
  • Examine the measures to be taken to protect Assamese and other indigenous languages of Assam.
  • Assessing the quantum of reservation in employment under the government of Assam and other measures to protect, preserve and promote the cultural, social, linguistic identity and heritage of Assamese people.
  • Assess the required quantum of reservation of seats in Assam assembly and local bodies for Assamese people.

The committee will hold consultation with all the stakeholders and recommend the necessary measures to the government.

Khalistan Liberation Force

Are you the ONE who don't like to take chances and waste one precious year by failing in Prelims?

Do you want to test your knowledge after reading a particular topic? Then The MCQ Factory (TMF) is for you! It provides topic wise high quality MCQs for testing your knowledge in a particular topic. More details here

Why in news?

  • The government has banned Khalistan Liberation Force (KLF) under the Unlawful Activities (Prevention) Act (UAPA) for its involvement in several killings, bombings and other terror activities during its violent campaign for the secession of Punjab.
  • The ban comes in the backdrop of various agencies unearthing several KLF modules in recent months which has led to apprehensions that it is attempting to revive militancy in the state.

Khalistan Liberation Force

The Khalistan Liberation Force came into existence in 1986 with the objective of establishing an independent Khalistan by the secession of Punjab from India through violent means. The following instances led to apprehensions that KLF is attempting to revive militancy in the state:

  • A five-member KLF module was busted by the Punjab Police, which resulted in working out the two cases relating to planting of Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs) in Nabha, Punjab.
  • A module was busted in Gurudaspur district and four terrorists were arrested with illegal arms and ammunition. It was alleged that they were planning to target Pathankot based leaders of a particular political party.
  • Amritsar police had busted another module and three KLF terrorists were arrested, who were planning to target prominent members of a particular community to disrupt communal harmony in Punjab.
  • Jalandhar police had also busted a  Khalistan Zindabad Force module of four members and arrested the chief of KLF along with illegal arms and ammunition

The Home Ministry justifying the ban states that the members of KLF in India are getting financial and logistic support from their handlers based abroad and it believes that the KLF is involved in terrorism as it has committed and participated in various acts of terrorism in India.

Unlawful Activities (Prevention) Act

Are you the ONE who don't like to take chances and waste one precious year by failing in Prelims?

Do you want to test your knowledge after reading a particular topic? Then The MCQ Factory (TMF) is for you! It provides topic wise high quality MCQs for testing your knowledge in a particular topic. More details here

  • Unlawful Activities (Prevention) Act (UAPA) aims at effective prevention of unlawful activities associations in India, provides unrestricted powers to law enforcement agencies for dealing with activities directed against the integrity and sovereignty of India.
  • The law imposes reasonable restrictions on exercise of freedom of speech and expression, to assemble peaceably without arms and to form associations in interests of sovereignty and integrity of India.

Information Technology (Intermediary Guidelines [Amendment] Rules), 2018

Are you the ONE who don't like to take chances and waste one precious year by failing in Prelims?

Do you want to test your knowledge after reading a particular topic? Then The MCQ Factory (TMF) is for you! It provides topic wise high quality MCQs for testing your knowledge in a particular topic. More details here

The Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology has released draft Information Technology (Intermediary Guidelines [Amendment] Rules), 2018.

Provisions under the new rules

The new rules are largely in conformity with developments on this front in various cases before the Supreme Court in recent months. The important provisions of these draft rules are:

  • Social media platforms are required to end the complete encryption system and remove any “unlawful content” for the sake of the country’s security.
  • The draft rules define intermediary as any platform that has more than 50 lakh users in India or is in the list of intermediary as notified by the government. Social media platforms such as Whatsapp, Facebook, Instagram and others fall under the definition of intermediary.
  • Whenever the government issues an order, within “72 hours of communication”, information or assistance concerning “security or cybersecurity” must be provided.
  • The social media platforms are also required to trace out the originator of information on its platform as may be required by the government agencies if the authorised functionaries demand so.
  • The government can seek the information about “unlawful acts” from the intermediaries by “court order” or by being notified by the government itself and the parameter to judge unlawful acts would be Article 19(2) of the Constitution, which place restrictions on freedom of speech and expression.
  • The intermediaries are also required to deploy technology based automated tools or appropriate mechanisms, with appropriate controls, for proactively identifying or removing or disabling access to unlawful information or content.
  • The intermediaries must publish their privacy policy for the user of the computer resource to check and mandates that no such platform would host, display, upload, modify, publish, transmit, information, that is grossly harmful, harassing, blasphemous, definitely obscene, pornographic, disparaging,” etc.
  • The rules also mandate the intermediaries to keep a record of unlawful activity for a period of 180 days, double the 90 days in the older version.

IT Act : 10 Agencies notified to monitor data

Are you the ONE who don't like to take chances and waste one precious year by failing in Prelims?

Do you want to test your knowledge after reading a particular topic? Then The MCQ Factory (TMF) is for you! It provides topic wise high quality MCQs for testing your knowledge in a particular topic. More details here

Context:

  • The Union government has notified 10 Central Agencies giving them the power to intercept, monitor and decrypt all the data contained in “any” computer system in India. 
  • The Cyber and Information Security Division under the Home ministry issued this notification.

Agencies:

The 10 agencies authorised by the central government are

  • Intelligence Bureau,
  • Narcotics Control Bureau,
  • Directorate of Revenue Intelligence,
  • CBI,
  • National Investigation Agency,
  • Enforcement Directorate,
  • Central Board of Direct Taxes,
  • Research and Analysis Wing,
  • Directorate of Signal Intelligence (in Jammu & Kashmir, the North-East and Assam) and
  • Delhi Police.

Rule 4 of IT Rules 2009:

As per the government, the notification fulfils the requirement under Rule 4 of the IT (Procedure and Safeguards for Interception, Monitoring and Description of Information) Rules, 2009, under which the government has to list the number of agencies permitted for the interception, monitoring and decryption of any data.

Section 69 of IT Act:

  • The Information Technology Act, 2000 is the primary law in India to handle cybercrime and to deal with electronic commerce. 
  • Section 69 of the Information Technology Act, 2000 includes provides for the interception and monitoring along with decryption for cyber-crime investigations.
  • The Information Technology (Procedures and Safeguards for Interception, Monitoring and Decryption of Information) Rules, 2009, has been notified by the government under Section 69.

Why the order has been challenged?

PIL has been filed in SC which states:

  • The notification was illegal, unconstitutional and ultra vires to the law.
  • The notification was being issued to restrict the political opponent, thinker and speaker to control the entire country under dictatorship to win coming general election under an undisclosed emergency as well as slavery which cannot be permitted within the Constitution of India.
  • The notification provides for blanket surveillance which must be tested against the fundamental right to privacy.
  • The notification enables the state to access every communication, computer and mobile and to use it to protect the political interest and object of the present executive political party.
  • The notification tries to create a surveillance state.

The government has defended the decision citing national security and claiming that the order was a mere repetition of the rules passed during the UPA regime in 2009.

Hashimpura massacre

Are you the ONE who don't like to take chances and waste one precious year by failing in Prelims?

Do you want to test your knowledge after reading a particular topic? Then The MCQ Factory (TMF) is for you! It provides topic wise high quality MCQs for testing your knowledge in a particular topic. More details here

Why in news?

  • More than 31 years after 38 Muslims from Hashimpura were rounded up and shot dead by the Uttar Pradesh Provincial Armed Constabulary (PAC), the Delhi High Court sent 16 former jawans to life imprisonment, holding them guilty of murder.

Hashimpura Massacare

  • The incident took place in the evening hours of May 22, 1987, when 42 to 45 elderly men and boys belonging to the Muslim community were rounded up by the PAC personnel, packed into a truck and taken away; 38 of them were later shot in cold blood and the bodies were thrown into the Gang Nahar (canal) and Hindon river.
  • After communal riots had taken over Meerut in April 1987, in a communally charged atmosphere; PAC was called in, but was withdrawn as the riots subsided.
  • However, violence erupted again around 19 May, when 10 people were killed as arson escalated, thus the Army was called out to stage a flag march.
  • Seven companies of CRPF reached the city during the day, while 30 companies of PAC were being rushed in and an indefinite curfew was declared.
  • The following day, mobs burned down Gulmarg cinema hall, and as the death toll rose to 22, plus 75 injured, shoot-at-sight orders were issued on 20 May 1987.
  • On the night of 22 May 1987, 19 PAC personnel, under platoon commander Surinder Pal Singh, rounded up Muslims in the Hashimpur mohalla in Meerut. The old and the children were later separated and let go.
  • They allegedly took about 40–45 of them, mostly day wage labourers and weavers, in a truck to the Upper Ganga canal in Murad Nagar, Ghaziabad district instead of taking them to the police station.
  • Here some were shot, one by one, and thrown into the canal. A bullet also injured one of the PAC constables. After some were killed, the headlights of passing vehicles made PAC personnel flee the spot with those alive.
  • Four of those shot escaped by pretending to be dead and then swimming away; one of them filed a first information report (FIR) at the Murad Nagar Police Station.
  • The remaining men were taken in the truck to the Hindon River Canal near Makanpur village in Ghaziabad, shot and their bodies thrown into the canal. Here again, two of the people who were shot at, survived and lodged an FIR at the Link Road Police Station.

NOTE:

This incident can be used in answers related to Judicial Delays, Communalism, Emotional Intelligence etc.

 

AFSPA : Impact of SC Ruling

Are you the ONE who don't like to take chances and waste one precious year by failing in Prelims?

Do you want to test your knowledge after reading a particular topic? Then The MCQ Factory (TMF) is for you! It provides topic wise high quality MCQs for testing your knowledge in a particular topic. More details here

Context:

  • In a July 2016 judgement, SC ended the immunity provided by the Armed Forces (Special Powers) Act of 1958 (AFSPA).
  • A Special Bench monitoring the CBI investigation into the alleged extrajudicial killings in Manipur will hear a petition filed by 355 Army officers in the Supreme Court, alleging “persecution” by agencies such as the CBI for doing their duty in the insurgency-hit areas of Jammu and Kashmir and the north-eastern States.

ias4sure.com - AFSPA Impact of SC Ruling

 

 

What is the dilemma?

  • In a July 2016 judgement, the Bench of Justices Lokur and Lalit ended the immunity provided by the Armed Forces (Special Powers) Act of 1958 (AFSPA). The judgment declared that “there is no concept of absolute immunity from trial by a criminal court”.
  • Post the judgement, an “extraordinary circumstance” is prevailing over armed forces personnel fighting in the insurgency-hit areas and the nation’s borders. They are plagued by doubts whether performing their duty to fight enemies would expose them to prosecution and land them in jail.
  • The petition said the Supreme Court’s orders and the resultant CBI action against Army personnel have made soldiers jittery.

 

Why immunity is needed?

  • The on-going situation is demoralising the officers and troops deployed in field areas and fighting in counter-terrorism and counter-insurgency operations in Jammu and Kashmir and north-eastern States.
  • Lack of immunity from prosecution would have a demoralising impact on the security forces
  • The Indian Army has to, in given circumstances, take quick decisions which cannot be dissected later on like an ordinary murder appeal. The scope of judicial review against active military operations cannot be on the same parameters as in other situations. 

 

Arguments against immunity:

  • Reports of blatant misuse, or rather abuse, of the law by the armed forces have flowed through the years, especially in the Northeast and Kashmir.
  • Impunity is to address any allegation of use of excessive or retaliatory force beyond the call of duty.
  • It is the requirement of a democracy and the requirement of preservation of the rule of law and the preservation of individual liberties that it does not matter whether the victim was a common person or a militant or a terrorist, nor does it matter whether the aggressor was a common person or the state. The law is the same for both and is equally applicable to both.
  • Given this history of violence and bloodshed trailing AFSPA, the judiciary’s attempt to make it less draconian and more accountable is a step in the right direction.
  • Judicial review tears down the cloak of secrecy about unaccounted deaths involving security forces in disturbed areas and serves as a judicial precedent to uphold civilian and human rights in sensitive areas under military control.

Tech Giants Data Localisation

Are you the ONE who don't like to take chances and waste one precious year by failing in Prelims?

Do you want to test your knowledge after reading a particular topic? Then The MCQ Factory (TMF) is for you! It provides topic wise high quality MCQs for testing your knowledge in a particular topic. More details here

Context

  • Indian government has asked Global Tach giants to set up local data centres.
  • In a fear that it will inhibit their growth aspirations in India with raising cost, the U.S. technology giants plan to intensify lobbying efforts against stringent Indian data localisation requirements.
  • Amazon, American Express and Microsoft, have opposed India’s push to store data locally.

ias4sure.com - Tech Giants Data Localisation

 

 

Issue Area

  • Data localisation is not just a business concern, it potentially makes government surveillance easier, which is a worry.
  • It could lead to increased government demands for data access.
  • Technology firms worry the mandate would hurt their planned investments by raising costs related to setting up new local data centres.
  • The issue could further undermine already strained economic relations between India and the United States.