POSHAN Abhiyaan : Analysis

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POSHAN Abhiyan:
  • POSHAN Abhiyaan (National Nutrition Mission) is a flagship programme of the Ministry of Women and Child Development.
  • The Mission is aimed at improving the nutritional status of Children from 0-6 years, Adolescent Girls, Pregnant Women and Lactating Mothers in a time bound manner during the next three years beginning 2017-18.
  • The Abhiyan aims to achieve convergence with various programmes i.e., Anganwadi Services, Pradhan Mantri Matru Vandana Yojana, Scheme for Adolescent Girls, Janani Suraksha Yojana, National Health Mission, Swachh-Bharat Mission, Public Distribution System, Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme.
Analysis:
  • Poshan Abhiyaan which focuses on reducing stunting, under-nutrition and anaemia in women and adolescents through direct cash transfers is a massive step towards eradicating malnutrition.
  • Poshan Abhiyaan has got global recognition for its effort to eradicate malnutrition.
  • Cash transfers under the mission provide an additional support to the family income.
  • The whole issue of malnutrition requires concrete action starting from the grassroot level at households as well as the community level.
  • The first and the most important step for reducing malnutrition in India is providing sufficient nutrition to pregnant and lactating mothers. The child then automatically is at much less risk of being malnourished.

Scheme for Higher Education Youth in Apprenticeship and Skills (SHREYAS)

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Ministry/Department : Ministry of Human Resource and Development, Ministry of Skill Development and Entrepreneurship, and the Ministry of Labour and Employment.
Program:
  • SHREYAS will primarily focus towards students from non-technical courses.
  • It will introduce employable skills into their learning.
  • It will provide a platform wherein educational institutions and industry would log in and provide their respective demand and supply of apprenticeship.
  • The programme promotes apprenticeship as an important part of education and integrates the government’s employment building efforts into the education system.
  • These apprenticeship courses will be available to them from academic year April-May, 2019.
  • SHREYAS is a major effort in the direction to make degree students more skilled, capable, employable and aligned to the needs of our economy so that they contribute to country’s progress and also obtain gainful employment.

MSP for MFP

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MSP for MFP
  • Minimum Support Price Scheme (MSP) for Minor Forest Produce (MFP) is a centrally-sponsored scheme aimed to ensure fair and remunerative price to MFP gatherers.
  • The scheme is officially known as ‘Mechanism for marketing of Minor Forest Produce (MFP) through Minimum Support Price (MSP) and development of value chain for MFP’ was planned as a social safety initiative for MFP gatherers.
  • The MSP for MFP scheme was first launched in 2013 but the severe gaps in its implementation led to the programme remaining dormant.
  • To revitalize the programme the revised guidelines have been issued. The revised guidelines:
    • Provide for a revised MSP in the range of 30-40% on average.
    • The procurement of these MFPs will commence in haat bazars, where tribals bring their produce with the facilitation provided by state government agencies and district collectors.
    • Lay down a decentralised implementation framework.
  • The implementing agency TRIFED has asked the states to submit within 45 days their roadmap for procurement and marketing of produce from the village level to the state level
Van Dhan Scheme:
  • For the value addition of MFPs, better marketing opportunities under the Van Dhan Scheme was launched last year.
  • The Tribal Affairs Ministry is now planning to scale up this scheme to all tribal districts.
  • The Ministry has asked the state government to prepare and share plan to set up the Van Dhan centres meant to value add to forest produce to boost the market for products made from MFPs.

Pradhan Mantri JI-VAN Yojana

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Ministry: Ministry of Petroleum and Natural Gas
Aims to provide financial support to Integrated Bioethanol Projects using lignocellulosic biomass and other renewable feedstock.
Pradhan Mantri JI-VAN
  • The scheme aims to incentivise 2G Ethanol sector and support this nascent industry by creating a suitable ecosystem for setting up commercial projects and increasing Research & Development in this area.
  • Under the scheme  12 Commercial Scale and 10 demonstration scale Second Generation (2G) ethanol Projects will be provided with a Viability Gap Funding (VGF) support in two phases:
  • Phase-I (2018-19 to 2022-23): Six commercial projects and five demonstration projects will be supported.
  • Phase-II (2020-21 to 2023-24): Six commercial projects and five demonstration projects will be supported.
  • The ethanol produced by the scheme beneficiaries will be mandatorily supplied to Oil Marketing Companies (OMCs) to further enhance the blending percentage under the ethanol blending programme.
Objectives of the Scheme
  • Accomplishing the Government of India vision to reduce import dependence by way of substituting fossil fuels with Biofuels.
  • Meeting of the GHG emissions reduction targets through progressive blending/ substitution of fossil fuels.
  • Addressing environmental concerns caused due to the burning of biomass/ crop residues & to improve the health of citizens.
  • Augmenting the farmer’s income by providing them remunerative income for their otherwise waste agriculture residues.
  • Creation of rural & urban employment opportunities in 2G Ethanol projects and Biomass supply chain.
  • Complementing the Swacch Bharat Mission by supporting the aggregation of non­food biofuel feedstocks such as waste biomass and urban waste.
  • Indigenizing of Second Generation Biomass to Ethanol technologies.
The government has set the target to achieve 10% blending percentage of Ethanol in petrol by 2022. The challenges like higher ethanol prices and simplification of the ethanol purchase system have become a hindrance. The highest ever ethanol procurement stood at around 150 crore litres during 2017-18 which is sufficient for around 4.22% blending on Pan India basis.
Hence to create 2G Ethanol capacity in the country and attract investments in this new sector Pradhan Mantri JI-VAN Yojana has been launched by the government.

PM Kisan Samman Nidhi (PM-KISAN)

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The interim budget 2019 has announced a farm income support scheme PM Kisan Samman Nidhi (PM-KISAN).

The features of the PM Kisan Samman Nidhi scheme are:

  • The Centre will transfer Rs 6,000 every year to small and marginal farmers.
  • The scheme will cost Rs 75,000-crore to the exchequer.
  • The scheme aims to address unrest among cultivators who have suffered due to adverse weather and weak prices.
  • Rs 6,000 will be transferred directly into the bank accounts of the beneficiary farmers in three instalments of Rs 2,000 each.
  • The scheme will benefit 120 million farmers with cultivable land of up to 2 hectares.

Analysis of the Scheme

The promised transfer of Rs 6,000 every year amounts to an average of Rs 500 per month. The National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development (Nabard) in its rural financial inclusion survey 2015-16 had estimated farmer’s average monthly income from cultivation at Rs 3,140 in its rural financial inclusion survey 2015-16. Therefore income support of an average of Rs 500 per month comes out to be 16% of a farmer’s average monthly income from cultivation.

Pradhan Mantri Shram Yogi Mandhan Scheme

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About the Scheme

The features of the Pradhan Mantri Shram Yogi Mandhan scheme are:

  • Under the scheme, an assured monthly pension of Rs 3,000 per month will be provided to workers in the unorganised sector after 60 years of age.
  • To avail of the scheme, workers will have to contribute a minimal Rs 100 month per month.
  • The scheme is expected to benefit 10 crore workers.
  • This new pension scheme will run alongside the existing Atal Pension Yojana, which guarantees returns post-retirement.
  • The scheme is designed as a tribute to the workers in the unorganised sector who contribute around 50 per cent of the country’s Gross Domestic Product (GDP).

Deendayal Antyodaya Yojana Analysis

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Dayal Deendayal Antyodaya Yojana

  • Deen Dayal Antyodaya Yojana (DAY) aims to uplift the poor folks by enhancing sustainable livelihood opportunities through skill development.
  • Deen Dayal Antyodaya Yojana integrates:
    • National Urban Livelihoods Mission(NULM): It is the urban component of the mission and is being implemented by the Ministry of Housing and Urban Poverty Alleviation.
    • National Rural Livelihoods Mission(NRLM): It is the rural component of the mission and is being implemented by the Ministry of Rural Development.

Implementation of (DAY-NULM)

The DAY-NULM has taken following initiatives during the tenure of present government:

  • 34 lakh urban poor women were organised into self-help groups.
  • Subsidised loans have been provided to over 8.5 lakh individuals and
  • Over 8.9 lakh candidates have been skill trained and certified and over 4.6 lakh have been placed.
  • 16 lakh street vendors have been identified through a survey and half of them have been given identity cards.
  • More than 1,000 permanent shelters have been set up, creating space for more than 60,000 urban homeless

Pradhan Mantri – Jan Arogya Yojana (PM-JAY)

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Ministry : Ministry of Health and Family Welfare

Aims to reduce the financial burden on poor and vulnerable groups arising out of catastrophic hospital episodes and ensure their access to quality health services.

Scheme:

  • PM-JAY is a scheme of the government under Ayushman Bharat.
  • PMJAY is government-sponsored health insurance scheme, that will provide free coverage of up to Rs 5 lakh per family per year in any government or empanelled private hospitals all over India.
  • It will cover beneficiaries families identified on the basis of Socio Economic Caste Survey (SECC) 2011 in 444 districts of 30 states/Union Territories.
  • National Health Agency (NHA) is the apex body for implementing this scheme.
  • States will be required to form State Health Agency (SHA) to implement scheme and at the district level also structure for its implementation will be set up.
  • Around 13000 hospitals both public and private in the country have been coordinated for implementation of the scheme.
  • PMJAY will be funded with 60% contribution from Centre and remaining from the states.
  • NITI Aayog will be working as partner for this scheme for operationalizing robust, modular and interoperable IT platform which will involve a paperless and cashless transaction.
  • PMJAY is entitlement based scheme with entitlement decided on basis of deprivation criteria in the SECC database.
  • There will be no cap on family size and age under this scheme.
  • The benefit cover under it also includes pre and post-hospitalisation expenses.
  • It also takes into consideration all pre-existing medical conditions.
  • It will provide reimbursement for bed charges and drugs and diagnostics two days before, during and 15 days after hospitalisation. Beneficiary will be also paid transport allowance for hospitalisation defined under it.
  • The payment for treatment will be done on package rate which will be defined by Government in advance basis.
  • The package rates will include all costs associated with treatment.
  • States and UTs have flexibility to modify these rates within limited bandwidth.
  • PMJAY allows national portability i.e. resident of any part of country is entitled for free hospitalization at empanelled hospital anywhere in the country.
  • It will strengthen healthcare services in India by targeting poor and vulnerable population of the country.
  • The scheme allows beneficiary to take cashless benefits from any public or private empanelled hospitals across the country.
  • ID documentation required for verifying beneficiary under this scheme may be Aadhaar card or election ID card or ration card. 
  • Aadhaar is not mandatory. 
  • Beneficiaries will QR codes having letters for verification through scanning.
  • Scheme also seeks to accelerate India’s progress towards the achievement of Universal Health Coverage (UHC) and Sustainable Development Goal – 3 (SDG3).

 

 

National Health Agency converted to National Health Authority:

“National Health Agency” has been dissolved and it is now restructured as an Authority to effectively the implement Pradhan Mantri – Jan Arogya Yojana (PM-JAY).

The National Health Authority would be empowered with full autonomy, accountability and the mandate to implement PM-JAY through an efficient, effective and transparent decision-making process by aligning the accountability with responsibility.

Why the Authority has been constituted?

The reasons for restructuring as an authority are:

  • To enable faster decision-making.
  • Replacing the multi-layered structure with a simplified structure.
  • Authority will be able to specify treatment protocols and enforce their compliance.
  • The Authority with a stronger mandate would be able to prevent, detect and control frauds, abuse and redress grievances, thus resulting in the reduction of leakages.

The National Health Authority would be chaired by Union Health Minister and have representation from the Government and domain experts.

Mahila Police Volunteer Scheme

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Ministry : Ministry of Women and Child Development in collaboration with the Ministry of Home Affairs.

Scheme:

  • A Mahila Police Volunteer could be any woman who is socially and voluntarily committed towards empowerment of women and girls, willing to raise her voice against gender-based violence and support the police in creating a gender just society free from violence.
  • A Mahila Police Volunteer should be minimum 21 years of age and possess at least 12th pass certificate.
  • A Mahila Police Volunteer must be from the same geographical area and conversant with the local dialects.
  • No criminal proceedings must have been instituted against her and she must not have been convicted or imprisoned for the violation of any criminal law.
  • A Mahila Police Volunteer should not be a member of any political party.
  • The Mahila Police Volunteers in the States/UTs will act as a link between police and community and help women in distress.
  • There will be one Mahila Police Volunteer per Gram Panchayat.
  • Mahila Police volunteers will directly report to the Circle Inspector in the Police Thana.
  • The Mahila Police volunteers are required to mobilize the community to form Mahila and Shishu Rakshak Dals (MASRD) to act as community watch groups.
  • The broad mandate of the Mahila Police Volunteer is to report incidences of violence against women such as domestic violence, child marriage, dowry harassment and violence faced by women in public spaces.
  • A Mahila Police Volunteer is an honorary position and they are paid an honorarium of Rs 1,000 per month.

National Pension System (NPS)

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  • It is easily accessible, low cost, tax-efficient, flexible and portable retirement savings account.
  • It was launched in 2004 and was initially introduced for new Government recruits (except armed forces).
  • It aims to institute pension reforms in country and to inculcate habit of saving for retirement amongst the citizens.
  • Its objective is to provide retirement income to all the citizens.
  • Under it, individual contributes to his retirement account.
  • Employer can also co-contribute for social security/welfare of individual.
  • It was extended for all citizens of country from May 2009 including the unorganised sector workers on voluntary basis.
  • NPS is governed and administered by Pension Fund Regulatory and Development Authority (PFRDA).
  • Currently, any Indian between age of 18 to 65 years may voluntarily join the NPS.
  • NRI can open an NPS account, however contributions made by NRI are subject to regulatory requirements as prescribed by RBI and FEMA from time to time.