PM Kisan Samman Nidhi (PM-KISAN)

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The interim budget 2019 has announced a farm income support scheme PM Kisan Samman Nidhi (PM-KISAN).

The features of the PM Kisan Samman Nidhi scheme are:

  • The Centre will transfer Rs 6,000 every year to small and marginal farmers.
  • The scheme will cost Rs 75,000-crore to the exchequer.
  • The scheme aims to address unrest among cultivators who have suffered due to adverse weather and weak prices.
  • Rs 6,000 will be transferred directly into the bank accounts of the beneficiary farmers in three instalments of Rs 2,000 each.
  • The scheme will benefit 120 million farmers with cultivable land of up to 2 hectares.

Analysis of the Scheme

The promised transfer of Rs 6,000 every year amounts to an average of Rs 500 per month. The National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development (Nabard) in its rural financial inclusion survey 2015-16 had estimated farmer’s average monthly income from cultivation at Rs 3,140 in its rural financial inclusion survey 2015-16. Therefore income support of an average of Rs 500 per month comes out to be 16% of a farmer’s average monthly income from cultivation.

Pradhan Mantri Shram Yogi Mandhan Scheme

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About the Scheme

The features of the Pradhan Mantri Shram Yogi Mandhan scheme are:

  • Under the scheme, an assured monthly pension of Rs 3,000 per month will be provided to workers in the unorganised sector after 60 years of age.
  • To avail of the scheme, workers will have to contribute a minimal Rs 100 month per month.
  • The scheme is expected to benefit 10 crore workers.
  • This new pension scheme will run alongside the existing Atal Pension Yojana, which guarantees returns post-retirement.
  • The scheme is designed as a tribute to the workers in the unorganised sector who contribute around 50 per cent of the country’s Gross Domestic Product (GDP).

Deendayal Antyodaya Yojana Analysis

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Dayal Deendayal Antyodaya Yojana

  • Deen Dayal Antyodaya Yojana (DAY) aims to uplift the poor folks by enhancing sustainable livelihood opportunities through skill development.
  • Deen Dayal Antyodaya Yojana integrates:
    • National Urban Livelihoods Mission(NULM): It is the urban component of the mission and is being implemented by the Ministry of Housing and Urban Poverty Alleviation.
    • National Rural Livelihoods Mission(NRLM): It is the rural component of the mission and is being implemented by the Ministry of Rural Development.

Implementation of (DAY-NULM)

The DAY-NULM has taken following initiatives during the tenure of present government:

  • 34 lakh urban poor women were organised into self-help groups.
  • Subsidised loans have been provided to over 8.5 lakh individuals and
  • Over 8.9 lakh candidates have been skill trained and certified and over 4.6 lakh have been placed.
  • 16 lakh street vendors have been identified through a survey and half of them have been given identity cards.
  • More than 1,000 permanent shelters have been set up, creating space for more than 60,000 urban homeless

Pradhan Mantri – Jan Arogya Yojana (PM-JAY)

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Ministry : Ministry of Health and Family Welfare

Aims to reduce the financial burden on poor and vulnerable groups arising out of catastrophic hospital episodes and ensure their access to quality health services.

Scheme:

  • PM-JAY is a scheme of the government under Ayushman Bharat.
  • PMJAY is government-sponsored health insurance scheme, that will provide free coverage of up to Rs 5 lakh per family per year in any government or empanelled private hospitals all over India.
  • It will cover beneficiaries families identified on the basis of Socio Economic Caste Survey (SECC) 2011 in 444 districts of 30 states/Union Territories.
  • National Health Agency (NHA) is the apex body for implementing this scheme.
  • States will be required to form State Health Agency (SHA) to implement scheme and at the district level also structure for its implementation will be set up.
  • Around 13000 hospitals both public and private in the country have been coordinated for implementation of the scheme.
  • PMJAY will be funded with 60% contribution from Centre and remaining from the states.
  • NITI Aayog will be working as partner for this scheme for operationalizing robust, modular and interoperable IT platform which will involve a paperless and cashless transaction.
  • PMJAY is entitlement based scheme with entitlement decided on basis of deprivation criteria in the SECC database.
  • There will be no cap on family size and age under this scheme.
  • The benefit cover under it also includes pre and post-hospitalisation expenses.
  • It also takes into consideration all pre-existing medical conditions.
  • It will provide reimbursement for bed charges and drugs and diagnostics two days before, during and 15 days after hospitalisation. Beneficiary will be also paid transport allowance for hospitalisation defined under it.
  • The payment for treatment will be done on package rate which will be defined by Government in advance basis.
  • The package rates will include all costs associated with treatment.
  • States and UTs have flexibility to modify these rates within limited bandwidth.
  • PMJAY allows national portability i.e. resident of any part of country is entitled for free hospitalization at empanelled hospital anywhere in the country.
  • It will strengthen healthcare services in India by targeting poor and vulnerable population of the country.
  • The scheme allows beneficiary to take cashless benefits from any public or private empanelled hospitals across the country.
  • ID documentation required for verifying beneficiary under this scheme may be Aadhaar card or election ID card or ration card. 
  • Aadhaar is not mandatory. 
  • Beneficiaries will QR codes having letters for verification through scanning.
  • Scheme also seeks to accelerate India’s progress towards the achievement of Universal Health Coverage (UHC) and Sustainable Development Goal – 3 (SDG3).

 

 

National Health Agency converted to National Health Authority:

“National Health Agency” has been dissolved and it is now restructured as an Authority to effectively the implement Pradhan Mantri – Jan Arogya Yojana (PM-JAY).

The National Health Authority would be empowered with full autonomy, accountability and the mandate to implement PM-JAY through an efficient, effective and transparent decision-making process by aligning the accountability with responsibility.

Why the Authority has been constituted?

The reasons for restructuring as an authority are:

  • To enable faster decision-making.
  • Replacing the multi-layered structure with a simplified structure.
  • Authority will be able to specify treatment protocols and enforce their compliance.
  • The Authority with a stronger mandate would be able to prevent, detect and control frauds, abuse and redress grievances, thus resulting in the reduction of leakages.

The National Health Authority would be chaired by Union Health Minister and have representation from the Government and domain experts.

Mahila Police Volunteer Scheme

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Ministry : Ministry of Women and Child Development in collaboration with the Ministry of Home Affairs.

Scheme:

  • A Mahila Police Volunteer could be any woman who is socially and voluntarily committed towards empowerment of women and girls, willing to raise her voice against gender-based violence and support the police in creating a gender just society free from violence.
  • A Mahila Police Volunteer should be minimum 21 years of age and possess at least 12th pass certificate.
  • A Mahila Police Volunteer must be from the same geographical area and conversant with the local dialects.
  • No criminal proceedings must have been instituted against her and she must not have been convicted or imprisoned for the violation of any criminal law.
  • A Mahila Police Volunteer should not be a member of any political party.
  • The Mahila Police Volunteers in the States/UTs will act as a link between police and community and help women in distress.
  • There will be one Mahila Police Volunteer per Gram Panchayat.
  • Mahila Police volunteers will directly report to the Circle Inspector in the Police Thana.
  • The Mahila Police volunteers are required to mobilize the community to form Mahila and Shishu Rakshak Dals (MASRD) to act as community watch groups.
  • The broad mandate of the Mahila Police Volunteer is to report incidences of violence against women such as domestic violence, child marriage, dowry harassment and violence faced by women in public spaces.
  • A Mahila Police Volunteer is an honorary position and they are paid an honorarium of Rs 1,000 per month.

National Pension System (NPS)

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  • It is easily accessible, low cost, tax-efficient, flexible and portable retirement savings account.
  • It was launched in 2004 and was initially introduced for new Government recruits (except armed forces).
  • It aims to institute pension reforms in country and to inculcate habit of saving for retirement amongst the citizens.
  • Its objective is to provide retirement income to all the citizens.
  • Under it, individual contributes to his retirement account.
  • Employer can also co-contribute for social security/welfare of individual.
  • It was extended for all citizens of country from May 2009 including the unorganised sector workers on voluntary basis.
  • NPS is governed and administered by Pension Fund Regulatory and Development Authority (PFRDA).
  • Currently, any Indian between age of 18 to 65 years may voluntarily join the NPS.
  • NRI can open an NPS account, however contributions made by NRI are subject to regulatory requirements as prescribed by RBI and FEMA from time to time.

Witness Protection Scheme

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Ministry : Ministry of Home Affairs

Scheme:

  • It has been formulated by Home Ministry on the inputs received from 18 States/UTs, five state legal services authorities and open sources including civil society, three high courts as well as from police personnel.
  • It was finalised in consultation with National Legal Services Authority (NALSA).
  • It aims to ensure that investigation, prosecution and trial of criminal offences does not turn out to be biased as witnesses are intimidated or frightened to give evidence without protection from violent or other criminal recrimination.
  • Essential features
    • Identifying categories of threat perceptions
    • Preparation of Threat Analysis Report by the head of police
    • Confidentiality and preservation of records, recovery of expenses, etc.
    • Types of protection measures like ensuring that witness and accused do not come face to face during investigation etc. protection of identity, change of identity, relocation of witness
  • Three types of witnesses categorises
    • Threat extends to life of witness or his family members during investigation, trial or thereafter.
    • Threat extends to safety, reputation or property of witness or his family members, during investigation, trial.
    • Threat is moderate and extends to harassment of witness or his family member’s, reputation or property during investigation, trial or thereafter.
  • Categorised witnesses under the scheme can file application for seeking protection order before competent authority of concerned district where offence is committed.
  • This competent authority will be chaired by District and Sessions Judge.
  • Head of police in the district will be its member and head of prosecution in the district as its member secretary.
  • When this authority receives application, it has to call for Threat Analysis Report (TAR) from ACP/DSP in charge of the concerned Police Sub-Division.
  • The authority is also empowered to order protection measures based on TAR such as identity protection, change of identity and relocation of witnesses.

SC View:

  • The apex court held that scheme will become law under Article 141/142 of Constitution till enactment of parliamentary and state legislations on the subject.
  • It also directed states/UTs to set up the vulnerable witness deposition complexes (VWDCs) within period of 1 year (by the end of 2019).
  • It also observed that there is paramount need to have witness protection regime in statutory form.
  • The main reasons for establishing these VWDC is  large percentage of acquittal in criminal cases is due to witnesses turning hostile and giving false testimonies, mostly due to lack of protection for them and their families.

 

Deendayal Antyodaya Yojana – National Urban Livelihoods Mission (DAY-NULM)

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Ministry/Department :  Ministry of Housing & Urban Poverty Alleviation

Objective is to uplift urban poor folks by enhancing sustainable livelihood opportunities through skill development.

Scheme:

  • It is Centrally Sponsored Scheme.
  • Its intended beneficiaries are urban poor (street vendors, slum dwellers, homeless, rag pickers); unemployed and differently abled.
  • It provides for employment through Skill Training and Placement through City Livelihood Centres to reduce poverty and vulnerability of the urban poor households.
  • It also provides social mobilization and institution development through formation of Self-Help Groups (SHG) for training members and hand holding, an initial support of 10, 000 is given for each group.
  • It also provides subsidy to urban poor i.e. interest subsidy of 5% – 7% for setting up individual micro-enterprises with loan of up to 2 lakhs and for group enterprises with loan limit of up to Rs.10 lakhs.
  • It fully funds cost of construction of shelters for urban homeless.
  • It also provides for development of vendor markets and also promotion of skills for vendors through setting up infrastructure and special projects for rag picker and differently abled etc.
  • Funding will be shared between the Centre and the States in the ratio of 75:25. For North Eastern and Special Category – the ratio will be 90:10.

Factual Information:

  • Launched in 2014

 

Atmosphere & Climate Research-Modelling Observing Systems & Services (ACROSS)

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Ministry : Ministry of Earth Sciences

Aim: The scheme aims at improving skill of weather and climate forecast through sustained observations, intensive Research & Development.

Scheme:

  • It consists of nine sub-programmes which are multi-disciplinary and multi institutional in nature and will be implemented in integrated manner.
  • It seeks to addresses different aspects of weather and climate services, which includes warnings for cyclone, storm surges, heat waves, thunderstorms etc.
  • Each of these aspects is incorporated as nine sub-schemes under umbrella scheme ACROSS and is implemented in integrated manners.

Benefits of Scheme

  • It will provide improved weather, climate and ocean forecast and services, thereby ensuring transfer of commensurate benefits to the various services.
  • It will also provide a sizable number of scientific and technical staff along with requisite administrative support, thereby generating employment.
  • It will generate employment opportunities to many people as large number of agencies like the Krishi Vigyana Kendras of ICAR, Universities and local municipalities are roped to ensure last-mile connectivity of the weather based services to the end–user.

 

Nirbhaya Fund

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  • The fund is created by Ministry of Finance in 2013 with a corpus of Rs 1000 crore.
  • It is aimed at enhancing the safety and security for women in the country.
  • It is a non-lapsable corpus fund.
  • It is being monitored by Empowered Committee of Officers under  Secretary of Women and Child Development Ministry.
  • It is an inter-ministerial committee which appraises and recommends various projects (schemes) proposed by different ministries to be funded from Nirbhaya Fund.
  • The Fund is administered by Department of Economic Affairs of the finance ministry