Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR)

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Established
26th September, 1942
Chairperson
Prime Minister of India
HQ : New Delhi
About: 
  • It is an autonomous body and the largest research and development (R&D) organisation in India – running 37 laboratories and 39 field stations or extension centres.
  • Although it is mainly funded by the Ministry of Science and Technology, it operates as an autonomous body registered under the Registration of Societies Act, 1860.
  • The research and development activities of CSIR includes aerospace engineering, Structural engineering, ocean sciences, Life sciences, metallurgy, chemicals, mining, food, petroleum, leather, and environment.

National Common Mobility Card

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  • The National Common Mobility Card (NCMC) was envisaged as part of the National Urban Transport Policy (NUTP) in 2006 by the Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs.
  • Referred to as ”One Nation One Card”, this inter-operable transport card would allow the holders to pay for their bus travel, toll taxes, parking charges, retail shopping and even withdraw money.
  • It runs as on RuPay card and automates the fare collection system. This eliminates the need to carry change and cash while travelling in the metro, bus or train, or for toll and parking.
  • The gate and reader prototype for the NCMC has been developed by government-owned Bharat Electronics Limited (BEL) in compliance with the Make in India initiative.
  • These cards would be issued by all public and private banks the same way credit, debit, and prepaid cards are issued.
  • NCMC provides a value proposition for customers as they need not carry multiple cards for different usage and the super-quick, a contactless transaction will improve the seamless experience.

Kandhamal Haldi

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  • Odisha’s Kandhamal Haldi (turmeric) will soon get Geographical Indications (GI) tag.
  • Kandhamal Haldi is famous for its healing properties.
  • It is main cash crop of tribal people in Kandhamal.
  • Apart from domestic use, it is also used for cosmetic and medicinal purposes.

 

International Film Festival of India (IFFI)

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  • It is biggest state-backed international film festival in India.
  • It is conducted jointly by Union Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, Directorate of Film Festivals and Government of Goa.
  • It was started in 1952 and since then held annually in Goa.
  • It aims at providing common platform for cinemas of world to project the excellence of the film art.
  • It also seeks to contribute to create awareness for understanding and appreciation of film cultures of different nations in context of their social and cultural ethos and promote friendship and cooperation among people of the world

 

Maharatna, Navratna, and Miniratna

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  • Miniratna, Navratna and Maharatna Status are given to PSUs depending on their success.
  • Department of Public Enterprises under Ministry of Heavy Industries & Public Enterprises grants these status.

Navratna Status:

  • The Government had introduced Navratna scheme, in 1997, to identify CPSEs that had comparative advantages and to support them in their drive to become global giants.
  • The Boards of Navratna CPSEs have been delegated powers in following areas:
    • Capital expenditure,
    • Investment in joint ventures / subsidiaries,
    • Mergers & acquisition and
    • Human resources management, etc.
  • At present there are 16 Navratna companies:
    • Bharat Electronics Limited (BEL)
    • Container Corporation of India Limited
    • Engineers India Limited
    • Hindustan Aeronautics Limited
    • Hindustan Petroleum Corporation Limited
    • Mahanagar Telephone Nigam Limited
    • National Aluminium Company Limited
    • National Buildings Construction Corporation Limited
    • NMDC Limited
    • Neyveli Lignite Corporation Limited
    • Oil India Limited
    • Power Finance Corporation Limited
    • Power Grid Corporation of India Limited
    • Rashtriya Ispat Nigam Limited
    • Rural Electrification Corporation Limited
    • Shipping Corporation of India Limited

Maharatna Status:

  • The “Maharatna” category for CPSEs was introduced in 2009 with objective to empower mega CPSEs to expand their operations and emerge as global giants or become Indian Multinational Companies (MNCs).
  • At present, there are Eight Maharatna companies:
    • Bharat Heavy Electricals (BHEL),
    • Coal India (CIL),
    • GAIL (India),
    • Indian Oil Corporation Limited,
    • NTPC,
    • Oil and Natural Gas Corporation (ONGC)
    • Steel Authority of India (SAIL)
    • Bharat Petroleum Corporation Limited
  • Maharatna and Navaratna state-owned units operate in strategic fields such as coal, petroleum, steel, heavy engineering, telecommunications, power supply and transportation services.

Criteria for Maharatna status

Under government rules, Central Public Sector Enterprises (CPSEs) must fulfill following criteria for grant of Maharatna status.

  • Having Navratna status.
  • Average annual turnover of more than Rs. 25,000 crore, during last 3 years.
  • Average annual net worth of more than Rs. 15,000 crore, during last 3 years.
  • Average annual net profit after tax of more than Rs. 5,000 crore, during last 3 years.
  • Should have significant global presence and international operations.
  • Listed on Indian stock exchange with minimum prescribed public shareholding limit under SEBI regulations.

 

Emergency Response Support System (ERSS)

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  • It will provide single emergency response number across the country, providing 24*7 efficient and effective response system which can receive inputs from various voice and data services like voice call, SMS, e-mail and panic buttons in public transport, to attend to citizens in distress.
  • It can also identify the location of persons in distress, connecting through voice or data, and immediate assistance will be provided to the affected.
  • It will help in optimum utilisation of manpower and prompt action on emergency calls.
  • In addition to this, problems related to coordination among police force will also be simplified.
  • It has feature of automated response system for timely dispatch of field resources (police) to the location of incidence using the system.
  • It also has GPS (Global Positioning System) enabled dispatch of vehicles to locate nearest vehicles.
  • It will provide standardized and easy to use mobile apps, IoT (Internet of Things) applications on Pan-India basis.

Atomic Energy Regulatory Board (AERB)

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  • It was established in November 1983 to carry out certain regulatory and safety functions in the fields of nuclear and radiation safety on a countrywide basis.
  • It was constituted by President of India by exercising powers conferred by Section 27 of Atomic Energy Act, 1962 to carry out certain regulatory and safety functions under the Act.
  • The regulatory authority of AERB is derived from rules and notifications promulgated under Atomic Energy Act, 1962 and Environmental (Protection) Act, 1986.
  • It is headquartered is in Mumbai, Maharashtra.
  • Its mission is to ensure that use of ionising radiation and nuclear energy in India does not cause undue risk to health and environment.
  • Currently, it consists of full-time Chairman, an ex officio Member, three part-time Members and Secretary.

 

Press Council of India

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  • The Press Council of India is a statutory body in India that governs the conduct of the print media.
  • Presently, the Council functions under the Press Council Act 1978 which arose from the recommendations of the Second Press Commission of India (1978).
  • The Press Council is a quasi-judicial body which acts as a watchdog of the press.
  • It adjudicates the complaints against and by the press for violation of ethics and for violation of the freedom of the press respectively.
  • Composition:
  • It consist of Chairman (who has by convention, been a retired judge of Supreme Court) and 28 other members of whom 20 represent press, five are nominated from two Houses of Parliament and three represent cultural, literary and legal fields.
  • Functions:
  • It is statutory, quasi-judicial body acting as watchdog of press.
  • It adjudicates complaints against and by the press for violation of ethics and for violation of the freedom of the press respectively.

 

India Infrastructure Finance Company Limited (IIFCL)

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  • It was set up in 2006 to provide long term debt for infrastructure projects.
  • It provides financial assistance to commercially viable projects, which includes projects implemented by public sector company, private sector company; or private sector company selected under Public Private Partnership (PPP) initiative.
  • IIFCL raises funds from domestic as well as external markets on strength of government guarantees.

Following sectors projects are eligible for financing from IIFCL:

  • Power;
  • Warehouses;
  • Gas pipelines;
  • Cold storage chains;
  • Fertilizer Manufacturing Industry
  • Infrastructure projects in Special Economic Zones;
  • International convention centres and other tourism infrastructure projects;
  • Road and bridges, seaports, railways, airports, inland waterways and other transportation projects.
  • Urban transport, water supply, sewage, solid waste management and other physical infrastructure in urban areas.

National Institution for Transforming India (NITI) Aayog

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  • NITI Aayog was formed on January 1, 2015.
  • It is neither a constitutional nor a statutory body.
  • NITI Aayog is created via an executive resolution of the Union Cabinet.
  • It is the premier policy ‘Think Tank’ of the Union Government, providing both directional and policy inputs.
  • It had replaced the 65-year old Planning Commission established in 1950.
  • Prime Minister is ex-officio Chairperson of the Aayog.
  • NITI Aayog plays important role in designing strategic and long term policies and programmes for the Government.
  • It also provides relevant technical advice to the Centre and States.
  • It also acts as the quintessential platform of Union Government to bring States to act together in national interest, and thereby fosters Cooperative Federalism.
  • It aims to achieve Sustainable Development Goals and to enhance cooperative federalism by fostering the involvement of State Governments of India in the economic policy-making process using a bottom-up approach.