- Formerly known as United Nations International Children’s Emergency Fund is special program of UN devoted to aiding national efforts to improve the health, nutrition, education, and general welfare of children.
- It was created in 1946 to provide relief to children in countries devastated by World War II.
- It is headquartered in New York City.
- After 1950, it directed its efforts toward general programs for improvement of children’s welfare, particularly in less-developed countries and various emergency situations.
- Its broader mission was reflected in present name adopted in 1953.
- It was awarded Nobel Prize for Peace in 1965.
- Since 1996 UNICEF programs have been guided by Convention on Rights of the Child (1989), which affirms right of all children to enjoyment of highest attainable standard of health and to facilities for treatment of illness and rehabilitation of health.
- Much of UNICEF’s efforts are concentrated in areas in which relatively small expenditures, but have significant impact on lives of the most disadvantaged children, such as the prevention and treatment of disease.
- Its activities are financed by both government and private contributions.
- It supports immunization programs for childhood diseases and programs to prevent spread of HIV/AIDS.
- It also provides funding for health services, educational facilities and other welfare services.
The WFP is the food-assistance branch of the United Nations.
It is the world’s largest humanitarian organization addressing hunger and promoting food security.
It works to help people who cannot produce or obtain enough food for themselves and their families.
It was established in 1961 after the 1960 Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) Conference.
Its headquarter is in Rome (Italy) and has more than 80 country offices around the world.
It provides food assistance to an average of 80 million people in 75 countries each year.
It is a member of the United Nations Development Group (UNDG) and part of its Executive Committee.
- WEF is Swiss non profit foundation, based in Geneva.
- Founded in 1971.
- It works to improve the state of the world through public-private cooperation.
- It serves as independent not-for-profit organization that works closely with other international organizations.
- WEF is best known for its annual winter meeting for five days in Davos, a mountain resort in Graubünden, in eastern Alps region of Switzerland.
- The meeting brings together some international political leaders, 2,500 top business leaders, selected intellectuals, and journalists to discuss the most pressing issues facing the world.
- CAATSA stands for “Countering America’s Adversaries Through Sanctions Act”
- This punitive act was signed by President Donald Trump in August 2017.
- It mandates US administration to impose sanctions on any country carrying out significant defence and energy trade with sanctioned entities in North Korea, Iran and Russia.
- This is an act by the Congress, thus the President of the United States of America doesn’t have too much of authority over it.
- Why in news? India is buying S-400 system from Russia that might invite sanctions under CAATSA
- OPEC stands for Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries
- Founded in 1960 in Bagdad
- HQ : Vienna
- 15 members
- Equatorial Guinea,
- Qatar (Will withdraw from OPEC in Jan 2019),
- Saudi Arabia(the de facto leader),
- United Arab Emirates, and
- Gabon has rejoined OPEC in July 2016
- Indonesia left OPEC in November 2016
- It operates on the principle of unanimity, and one member, one vote
- OPEC sets production targets for its member nations and generally, when OPEC production targets are reduced, oil prices increase
- As of 2015, the 15 countries accounted for 43 percent of global oil productionand 73 percent of the world’s “proven” oil reserves, giving OPEC a major influence on global oil prices.
- OPEC decisions have come to play a prominent role in the global oil market and international relations
- Kimberley Process is joint initiative of governments, industry and civil societies to stem flow of ‘conflict diamonds’, rough diamonds used by rebel groups to finance wars against legitimate governments.
- It is also described in United Nations Security Council (UNSC) resolutions.
- India is one of the founding members of KPCS.
- At present, KPCS has 54 members representing 81 countries including EU with 28 members.
- The KPCS came into effect from 1 January, 2003 through a United Nations General Assembly Resolution.
- It outlines the rules that govern trade in rough diamonds.
- It has evolved into effective mechanism for stopping trade in conflict diamonds.
- It sets minimum requirements that each participant must meet.
- In India, the scheme is administered through Department of Commerce under aegis of the Union Commerce and Industry Ministry.
- Why in news? India was selected as Chair of Ad Hoc Committee on Review & Reforms to look into various issues pertaining to the Kimberley Process Certification Scheme (KPSC).
What are Conflict Diamonds?
Conflict diamonds or blood diamonds are the rough diamonds used by rebel movements in the third world countries especially in Africa to finance (civil) wars with an aim to topple legitimate governments. The KPCS completely bans import and export of rough diamonds without certification.
ITU is the United Nations specialised agency for information and communication technologies (ICTs).
Members: 193 countries + 800 private-sector entities and academic institutions.
HQ: Geneva, Switzerland.
ITU is responsible for allocating global radio spectrum and satellite orbits.
It also develops the technical standards that ensure networks and technologies to seamlessly interconnect.
It also strives to improve access to ICTs among the underserved communities worldwide.
Why in news? India was elected as member of International Telecommunications Union (ITU) Council for another 4-year term from 2019 to 2022.
- CWC is an arms control treaty which outlaws the production, stockpiling, and use of chemical weapons and their precursors and entered into force in 1997
- It entered into force on 1997.
- The full name of the treaty is the Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production, Stockpiling and Use of Chemical Weapons and on their Destruction.
- The CWC is implemented by the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW), which is headquartered in The Hague.
- The OPCW receives states-parties’ declarations detailing chemical weapons-related activities or materials and relevant industrial activities. After receiving declarations, the OPCW inspects and monitors states-parties’ facilities and activities that are relevant to the convention, to ensure compliance.
- The CWC is open to all nations and currently has 193 states-parties.
- Israel has signed but has yet to ratify the convention.
- A key non-signatory includes North Korea.
- Most recently, Palestine deposited its instrument of accession to the CWC.
- As of October 2016, about 93% of the world’s declared stockpile of chemical weapons had been destroyed.
The Chemical Weapons Convention prohibits:
- Developing, producing, acquiring, stockpiling, or retaining chemical weapons.
- The direct or indirect transfer of chemical weapons.
- Chemical weapons use or military preparation for use.
- Assisting, encouraging, or inducing other states to engage in CWC-prohibited activity.
- The use of riot control agents “as a method of warfare.”