G77

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  • G77 is a coalition of 134 developing nations (including China) at the United Nations.
  • Traditionally G77 speaks with a single voice before the 193-member General Assembly and also at all UN committee meetings and at international conferences.
  • G77 was formed on 15 June 1964 by the “Joint Declaration of the Seventy-Seven Countries” issued at the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD).
  • The group was credited with a common stance against apartheid and for supporting global disarmament.
  • India is a member of G77.

G77 and China

  • The G77 grouping considers China as the member state. China is providing consistent political support to the G77 and even makes financial contributions.
  • But it doesn’t consider itself as the member of the group.
  • Hence official statements of the G77 are delivered in the name of the Group of 77 and China.

 

 

Why in news?

  • Palestine has taken over the chairmanship of G77 from Egypt.
  • The chairmanship of the G77 is based on the system of geographical rotation.
  • 2019 was Asia’s turn and the Asian group had unanimously endorsed Palestine.
  • Egypt was representing the African Group of countries.

ADMM-Plus

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  • ADMM stands for ASEAN Defence Ministers Meeting
  • ADMM-Plus is a platform for ASEAN and its eight dialogue partners to strengthen security and defence co-operation for peace, stability, and development in the region.
  • Its objective is to promote mutual trust and confidence between defence establishments through greater dialogue and transparency.
  • The inaugural ADMM-Plus was convened in Hanoi, Vietnam in 2010.
  • The defence ministers then had agreed on five areas of practical cooperation, including maritime security, counter-terrorism, peacekeeping operations and humanitarian assistance.

Shanghai Cooperation Organisation

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  • It is a Eurasian political, economic, and military organisation
  • Founded in 2001 in Shanghai
  • 8 members:
    • China
    • Kazakhstan
    • Kyrgyzstan
    • Russia
    • Tajikistan,
    • Uzbekistan,
    • India and
    • Pakistan
  • SCO evolved from Shanghai Five (All above minus Uzbekistan)
  • On July 10, 2015, the SCO decided to admit India and Pakistan as full members, and they joined as full members in 2017.
  • Main activities: cooperation on security, military activities, and economic and cultural cooperation
  • Member countries are rich in energy resources (both fossil fuels and uranium)
  • Members represent over 40% of humanity and nearly 20% of the global GDP.
  • HQ : Beijing, China
  • Map (Taken from Wikipedia. Not up to scale. For educational purpose only):

 

 

ias4sure.com - Shanghai Cooperation Organisation

 

 

Latest Summit:

  • Quingdao (China) in June 2018

G20

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  • It is an international forum for the governmentsand central bank governors from 20 major economies.
  • Founded in 1999
  • Its aim was to review policy decisions to enhance international financial stability
  • It now deliberates on global economic issues and other important development challenges.
  • First Head of State Summit was held in 2008 (Due to Economic Crisis)
  • 20 Members ( EU + 19 Countries) :
    • Argentina,
    • Australia,
    • Brazil,
    • Canada,
    • China,
    • France,
    • Germany,
    • India,
    • Indonesia,
    • Italy,
    • Japan,
    • South Korea,
    • Mexico,
    • Russia,
    • Saudi Arabia,
    • South Africa,
    • Turkey,
    • United Kingdom and
    • United States
  • G20 economies account for around 85% of the gross world product (GWP), 80% of world trade (or, if excluding EU intra-trade, 75%), and two-thirds of the world population
  • G20 replaced G8 as the main economic council of wealthy nations
  • Map : (Blue : members, Pink : Guests) (Taken from Wikipedia. Not up to scale. For educational purpose only)

Latest Summit:

  • In 2017, held in Hamburg, Germany
  • In 2018, held in Buenos Aires, Argentina

 

SAARC

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  • SAARC stands for South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation
  • It is regional intergovernmental organization and geopolitical union in South Asia.
  • Founded in Dhaka in 1985
  • Secretariat : Kathmandu
  • 8 Members:
    • Afghanistan (Joined in 2007)
    • Bhutan
    • Bangladesh
    • India
    • Pakistan
    • Nepal
    • Sri Lanka
    • Maldives
  • Myanmar and China are not its members
  • Nine observer states: Australia, China, European Union, Japan, Iran, Mauritius, Myanmar, South Korea, and United States.
  • SAARC compromises 3% of the world’s area, 21% of the world’s population and 9.12% of the global economy, as of 2015
  • The organization promotes development economics and regional integration
  • SAFTA : South Asia Free Trade Agreement was launched in 2006
  • Map: (Dark : members; Light : Observer status)
Latest Summit:
  • Kathmandu, Nepal in 2014
  • 2016 Summit to be held in Islamabad, Pakistan
 
SAARCLAW Conference
  • It was established in Sri Lanka in 1991.
  • Since then conference has provided a platform for legal professionals from South Asian region to meet and discuss issues of mutual interests pertaining to justice, legal reforms, good governance and enforcement over a span of 25 years.
  • 14th Conference held in Colombo, SL in October 2017