The genesis of National Archives of India can be traced to the report of Sandeman, the Civil Auditor who had stressed the need of relieving the offices of congestion by the destruction of the papers of routine nature and transfer of all valuable records to a ‘Grand Central Archive’.
In 1889 Professor G.W. Forrest of Elphinstone College, Bombay entrusted the job of examining the records of the Foreign Department of the Government of India made a strong plea for transferring all records of the administration of East India Company to a Central Repository
This led to the establishment of Imperial Records Department (IRD) on 11 March 1891 in the Imperial Secretariat Building at Calcutta (Kolkata).
In 1911 the IRD was shifted to Delhi. After the Independence, the government of India rechristened IRD as the National Archives of India with Director of Archives as its head and in the year 1990 the office of the Director of Archives was re-designated as Director General of Archives.
At present National Archives of India is an attached office under the Ministry of Culture and has a Regional Office at Bhopal and three Records Centres at Jaipur, Puducherry and Bhubaneswar.
United Nations Office of Drugs and Crime (UNODC) established in 1997 is a global leader in the fight against illicit drugs and international crime.
UNDOC came into being with the merger of United Nations Drug Control Programme and the Centre for International Crime Prevention.
The Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC) is India’s premier nuclear research facility headquartered in Trombay, Mumbai, Maharashtra.
The Atomic Energy Establishment, Trombay (AEET) was established by the government of India in 1954 to consolidate all the research and development activity for nuclear reactors and technology under the AEET.
As a result, all the scientists and engineers engaged in the fields of reactor design and development, instrumentation, metallurgy and material science etc. were transferred with their respective programmes from the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research (TIFR) to AEET, with TIFR retaining its original focus for fundamental research in the sciences.
After the demise of Dr Homi Jehangir Bhabha in 1966, AEET was renamed Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC).
Over the years, BARC has emerged as the multi-disciplinary research centre with extensive infrastructure for advanced research and development.
Its R&D covers the entire spectrum of nuclear science, engineering and related areas.
BARC’s core mandate is to sustain peaceful applications of nuclear energy, primarily for power generation.
Bureau of Energy Efficiency is a statutory body set up under the Energy Conservation Act, 2001.
The Bureau of Energy Efficiency assists the government in developing policies and strategies with a thrust on self-regulation and market principles with the primary objective of reducing the energy intensity of the Indian economy within the overall framework of the Energy Conservation Act, 2001.
World Government Summit
- The World Government Summit is a neutral, non-profit organization at the intersection of government and innovation.
- The World Government Summit functions as a knowledge exchange platform for leaders in the public and private sectors to convene and collaborate with world-renowned experts to create a positive impact for citizens worldwide.
- The World Government Summit is a global platform dedicated to shaping the future of governments worldwide.
- It sets the agenda each year for the next generation of governments, focusing on how they can harness innovation and technology to solve universal challenges facing humanity.
- It provides a unique platform to showcase and exchange best practices and smart solutions to the challenges that nations face.
- The seventh annual World Government Summit is being held in Dubai (UAE).
- IFSCs are set-up to bring back the financial services and transactions that are currently carried out in offshore financial centres by Indian corporate entities and overseas branches or subsidiaries of financial institutions (FIs) to India.
- The first IFSC in India was set up at GIFT City in Gandhinagar, Gujarat.
- In order to ensure this, the business and regulatory environment must be comparable to other leading international financial centres in the world like London and Singapore.
- Currently, the banking, capital markets and insurance sectors in IFSCs are regulated by multiple regulators like the RBI, SEBI and IRDAI respectively.
- For IFSCs to attain its objectives there is a need for inter-regulatory coordination.
- The establishment of a unified financial regulator for IFSCs will result in providing a world-class regulatory environment to market participants from the ease of doing business perspective.
- For the setting up of a unified regulator, the Union cabinet has approved the International Financial Services Centres Authority Bill, 2019.
- The Africa Centre for Climate and Sustainable Development was inaugurated by the Italian Prime Minister Giuseppe Conte at Rome.
- The centre has been opened by the Italian government in association with the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) and the Food and Agricultural Organisation (FAO).
About the Centre
The important aspects of the Africa Centre for Climate and Sustainable Development are:
- The centre’s origin can be traced to a declaration endorsed by the G7 meeting of the Environment Ministers in 2017.
- The centre would facilitate coordination among the G7 and African countries on common initiatives in Africa to achieve the goals set by the Paris Agreement and the 2030 Agenda.
- The Centre would contribute towards addressing the needs of Africa by providing a platform for G7 countries to steer their cooperation to contrast environmental degradation and promote sustainable economic growth in the region.
- The centre will provide a fast-track, demand-driven mechanism for African countries to access grant resources that support policies, initiatives, and best practices on climate change, food security, access to water, clean energy, and accelerating progress on the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) in Africa.
The centre would be hosted by UNDP which would utilise its extensive country office network and programmatic hubs, and global expertise and knowledge, to enable the African countries to access the resources available through it.
Attaining the Sustainable Development Goals
Africa referred to as Dark Continent still has up to 330 million of its population living in poverty and up to 60% of unemployed Africans are young people. The centre will help to speed up progress and quickly resource national development priorities in the African countries to address these challenges and achieve the Sustainable Development Goals.
National Statistical Commission:
- National Statistical Commission was established in 2005 based on the recommendations of the Rangarajan Commission.
- The commission was established through an executive order and it works under the Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation.
- The Rangarajan Commission recommended the establishment of a permanent National Commission on Statistics to serve as a nodal and empowered body for all core statistical activities of the country, evolve, monitor and enforce statistical priorities and standards and to ensure statistical co-ordination among the different agencies involved.
Composition of the Commission
- The Commission consists of a part-time Chairperson, four part-time Members, an ex-officio Member and a secretary.
- The Chief Statistician of India who is the Head of the National Statistical Office is the Secretary of the Commission and the Chief Executive Officer of the NITI Aayog is the ex-officio Member of the commission.
Mandate of the Commission
The mandate of the National Statistical commission include:
- To identify the core statistics, which are of national importance and are critical to the development of the economy.
- To constitute professional committees or working groups to assist the Commission on various technical issues.
- To evolve national policies and priorities relating to the statistical system.
- To evolve standard statistical concepts, definitions, classifications and methodologies in different areas in statistics and lay down national quality standards on core statistics.
- To evolve national strategies for the collection, tabulation and dissemination of core statistics, including the release calendar for various datasets.
- To evolve national strategies for human resource development on official statistics including information technology and communication needs of the statistical system.
- To evolve measures for improving public trust in official statistics.
- To evolve measures for effective coordination with State Governments and Union Territory Administrations on statistical activities including the strengthening of existing institutional mechanisms.
- To exercise statistical co-ordination between Ministries, Departments and other agencies of the Central Government.
- To exercise statistical audit over the statistical activities to ensure quality and integrity of the statistical products.
- To recommend to the Central Government, or any State Government, as the case may be, measures to effectively implement the standards, strategies and other measures related to statistics.
- To advise the Government on the requirement of legislative measures on statistical matters including the statute for the National Statistical Commission
- To monitor and review the functioning of the statistical system in the light of the laid down policies, standards and methodology.
- The commission has also been entrusted with the functions of the Governing Council of the National Sample Survey Office which include overseeing the conduct of National Sample Surveys (NSS) on various socioeconomic subjects through the NSSO and the State Directorate of Economics and Statistics.
National Bench of Goods and Services Tax Appellate Tribunal
The features of the Goods and Services Tax Appellate Tribunal (GSTAT) are:
- The National Bench of the Goods and Services Tax Appellate Tribunal will be situated in New Delhi.
- The National Bench of GSTAT would consist of President and comprise of one technical member from the centre and one technical member from the state.
- The National Bench of GSTAT will serve as a forum for the second appeal in GST laws and the first common forum for dispute resolution between Centre and States.
- The first appeal against the decisions of the Appellate Authorities under the Central and State GST Acts lie before the National Bench.
- National Bench of GSTAT will ensure uniformity in redressal of disputes arising under GST, and therefore, in the implementation of GST across the country.
Provisions for the National Bench of the Goods and Services Tax Appellate Tribunal
- Chapter XVIII of the CGST Act provides for the Appeal and Review Mechanism for dispute resolution under the GST.
- Section 109 of Chapter XVIII Chapter of CGST Act empowers the Central Government to constitute an Appellate Tribunal known as the Goods and Services Tax Appellate Tribunal for hearing on the recommendation of Council, by notification, with effect from such date as may be specified therein on the recommendation of GST Council.
- G77 is a coalition of 134 developing nations (including China) at the United Nations.
- Traditionally G77 speaks with a single voice before the 193-member General Assembly and also at all UN committee meetings and at international conferences.
- G77 was formed on 15 June 1964 by the “Joint Declaration of the Seventy-Seven Countries” issued at the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD).
- The group was credited with a common stance against apartheid and for supporting global disarmament.
- India is a member of G77.
G77 and China
- The G77 grouping considers China as the member state. China is providing consistent political support to the G77 and even makes financial contributions.
- But it doesn’t consider itself as the member of the group.
- Hence official statements of the G77 are delivered in the name of the Group of 77 and China.
Why in news?
- Palestine has taken over the chairmanship of G77 from Egypt.
- The chairmanship of the G77 is based on the system of geographical rotation.
- 2019 was Asia’s turn and the Asian group had unanimously endorsed Palestine.
- Egypt was representing the African Group of countries.