Global Hunger Index 2018

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  • India ranked 103/119
  • India slipped by 3 ranks i.e. from rank 100 in 2017
  • Index is released by Washington-based International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
  • At least one in five Indian children under the age of five are ‘wasted,’ which means they have extremely low weight for their height, reflecting acute under-nutrition.
  • The only country with a higher prevalence of child wasting is the war-torn nation of South Sudan.
  • India has shown improvement in three of the indicators over the comparable reference years. The percentage of undernourished people in the population has dropped from 18.2% in 2000 to 14.8% in 2018. The child mortality rate has halved from 9.2% to 4.3%, while child stunting has dropped from 54.2% to 38.4% over the same period.

What is Global Hunger Index (GHI)?

  • The GHI is a multidimensional statistical tool used to describe the state of countries’ hunger situation.
  • It is released annually by IFPRI since 2006.
  • It ranks countries on a 100-point scale. Zero on the scale is the best score (no hunger), and 100 is the worst.
  • It highlights successes and failures in hunger reduction and provides insights into the drivers of hunger. Thus, GHI aims to trigger actions to reduce hunger.
  • The GHI is calculated by taking into account four indicator parameters. They are :
    1. Undernourished population (1/3rd weight),
    2. Child wasting (1/6th weight),
    3. Child stunting (1/6th weight) and
    4. Infant mortality rate (1/3rd weight).
  • Stunting: Deficiency in height in relation to age, reflects chronic undernutrition.
  • Wasting: Low weight in relation to a child’s height, reflects acute undernutrition.

Ease of Doing Business Index 2018

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  • India ranked 77/190 countries.
  • India has jumped 23 ranks to attain 77th spot from 100th position in Ease of Doing Business Index 2017.
  • Report is published by World Bank.

 

  • Index:
    • The Ease of Doing Business Index assesses 190 economies and covers 10 indicators which span the lifecycle of a business.
    • These 10 indicators are: Starting a business, Dealing with construction permits, Getting electricity, Registering property, Getting credit, Protecting minority investors, Paying taxes, Trading across borders, Enforcing contracts and Resolving insolvency.
    • Each one of these indicators carry equal weightage.
    • Each one of these indicators carry equal weightage.

 

  • Highlight about India:
    • India figures among top 10 countries that have marked an improvement this year.
    • In case of India, Delhi and Mumbai are only two cities surveyed by World Bank for this rankings.
    • Its jump in ranking was aided largely by improvement in areas such as “trading across borders”, “dealing with construction permits”, “getting electricity”, “getting credit” and “starting a business”.
    • It has improved in rank in six out of ten indicators. It has moved closer to international best practice.

Government e-Payments Adoption Ranking (GEAR) 2018

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  • India was ranked 28th among 73 countries.
  • India has jumped by eight positions in this ranking from 36th in 2011 which reinforces country’s progress towards digital transformation.
  • Norway has topped 2018 GEAR list.
  • It is an Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU) global Index and benchmarking study commissioned by financial services corporation Visa.
  • It ranks governments by quantifying their e-payment capabilities based on various indicators.

Human Capital Score

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  • India ranks 158th in the world for its investments in education and health care.
  • India is ranked at 158 out of 195 countries in 2016, an improvement from its position of 162 in 1990.
  • The study is based on analysis of data from government agencies, schools, and health care systems.
  • South Asian countries ranking below India in this report include Pakistan (164), Bangladesh (161) and Afghanistan (188).
  • Countries in the region that have fared better than India in terms of human capital include Sri Lanka (102), Nepal (156), Bhutan (133) and Maldives (116).
  • The findings show the association between investments in education and health and improved human capital and GDP.

Financial Inclusion Index (FII)

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  • The annual FII will be released by Department of Financial Services (DFS), Ministry of Finance.
  • It will be measure of access and usage of basket of formal financial products and services that includes savings, remittances, credit, insurance and pension products.
  • The index has three measurement dimensions
    1. Access to financial services
    2. Usage of financial services and
    3. Quality.
  • It will serve as single composite index that will give snap shot of level of financial inclusion which will guide Macro Policy perspective.
  • Significance of index:
    • Its various components will help to measure financial services for use of internal policy making.
    • It can be used directly as composite measure in development indicators.
    • It will also enable to fulfil G20 Financial Inclusion Indicators requirements.
    • It will also facilitate researchers to study the impact of financial inclusion and other macro-economic variables.

Human Development Index 2017

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  • India ranked 130/189 countries
  • India scored 0.64 and was placed in medium human development category.
  • Published by United Nations Development Program (UNDP)
  • Norway is ranked 1
  • India ranks lowest among BRICS nations
  • India related Facts:
    • Between 1990 and 2017, India’s HDI value increased from 0.427 to 0.640, an almost 50 per cent increase, which is an indicator that millions have been lifted out of poverty
  • The HDI is a measure for assessing countries progress in three basic dimensions of human development:
    • a long and healthy life (life expectancy),
    • access to knowledge and
    • access to a decent standard of living.
  • Countries are ranked based on scale ranging between 0 (low) to 1 (high).

E-Government Development Index (EGDI)

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  • India ranked 96/193
  • Denmark is ranked 1.
  • India is ranked 15/193 in E-Participation Index.
  • It measures countries use of information and communications technologies to deliver public services.
  • The index captures the scope and quality of online services, status of telecommunication infrastructure and existing human capacity.
  • The survey is conducted every 2 years by Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat
  • With an EGDI index score of 0.5669, India is just above the world average of 0.55.
  • In the SAARC region, Sri Lanka is ahead of India.

Public Affairs Index (PAI)

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  • The index is released since in 2016 by Bengaluru base Public Affairs Centre (PAC), a not for profit think tank which aims to improve governance in India.
  • It covers wide range of themes such as support to human development, social protection, essential infrastructure, women and children, crime, law and order, delivery of justice, transparency and accountability, environment, fiscal management and economic freedom.
  • In PAI 2018, Kerala tops the list as best-governed state in the country followed by Tamil Nadu.

GDP deflator

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What is GDP deflator?
  • The GDP deflator, also called implicit price deflator, is a measure of inflation.
  • It is the ratio of the value of goods and services an economy produces in a particular year at current prices to that of prices that prevailed during the base year.
  • This ratio helps show the extent to which the increase in gross domestic product has happened on account of higher prices rather than increase in output.
  • GDP price deflator measures the difference between real GDP and nominal GDP. Nominal GDP differs from real GDP as the later doesn’t include inflation, while the former does.
  • As a result, nominal GDP will most often be higher than real GDP in an expanding economy.
  • The formula to find the GDP price deflator:
  • GDP price deflator = (nominal GDP ÷ real GDP) x 100

 

 ias4sure.com - GDP deflator
 
Why GDP deflator is a better measure of inflation than CPI / WPI?
  • Since the deflator covers the entire range of goods and services produced in the economy — as against the limited commodity baskets for the wholesale or consumer price indices — it is seen as a more comprehensive measure of inflation.
  • A consumer price index (CPI) measures changes over time in the general level of prices of goods and services that households acquire for the purpose of consumption.
  • However, since CPI is based only a basket of select goods and is calculated on prices included in it, it does not capture inflation across the economy as a whole.
  • The wholesale price index basket has no representation of the services sector and all the constituents are only goods whose prices are captured at the wholesale/producer level.
  • Changes in consumption patterns or introduction of goods and services are automatically reflected in the GDP deflator.
  • This allows the GDP deflator to absorb changes to an economy’s consumption or investment patterns. Often, the trends of the GDP deflator will be similar to that of the CPI.
  • Specifically, for the GDP deflator, the ‘basket’ in each year is the set of all goods that were produced domestically, weighted by the market value of the total consumption of each good.
  • Therefore, new expenditure patterns are allowed to show up in the deflator as people respond to changing prices. The theory behind this approach is that the GDP deflator reflects up-to-date expenditure patterns.
  • Drawback: GDP deflator is available only on a quarterly basis along with GDP estimates, whereas CPI and WPI data are released every month.

Purchasing Managers Index

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  • The Purchasing Managers’ Index (PMI) is an indicator of the economic health of the manufacturing and services sector.
  • The PMI is based on five major indicators:
    • New orders,
    • Inventory levels,
    • Production,
    • Supplier deliveries and
    • Employment environment.
  • The purpose of the PMI is to provide information about current business conditions to company decision makers, analysts and purchasing managers.
  • It is a survey-based measure that asks respondents about changes in their perception of some key business variables from last month.
  • It is calculated separately for manufacturing and services sectors and then composite index is constructed.