- Members : India, Brazil, Germany and Japan
- All members support each other’s bids for permanent seats on the United Nations Security Council
- Formed in 2004
- Each of these four countries have figured among the elected non-permanent members of the council since the UN’s establishment.
- Their economic and political influence has grown significantly in the last decades, reaching a scope comparable to the permanent members (P5)
- G4 campaigns for U.N. Reforms, including more representation for developing countries, both in the permanent and non-permanent categories, in the UNSC
- France supports inclusion of G4 and an African representative as permanent member with no objection to the veto power being extended to new permanent members. UK supports G4 as new members but without veto power.
- G4’s bids are often opposed by Uniting for Consensus movement or Coffee Club (ground 12 countries including Pakistan led by Italy) and particularly their economic competitors or political rivals.
- ASEM stands for ASIA-Europe Meeting Summit
- It is an informal dialogue process
- It brings together 53 entities – including 51 countries (including India) from Asia and Europe and two regional bodies European Union (EU) and the ASEAN
- Established in 1996 in Bangkok
- The dialogue addresses political, economic and cultural issues between the two regions
- It also seeks to strengthen the relationship between the two regions in a spirit of mutual respect and equal partnership
- Meetings are held biennially i.e. every two years
- Map (Taken from Wikipedia. Not up to scale. For educational purpose only) :
- Brussels, Belgium in October 2018
- The theme of summit was ‘Global Partners for Global Challenges’.
- OPEC stands for Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries
- Founded in 1960 in Bagdad
- HQ : Vienna
- 15 members
- Equatorial Guinea,
- Qatar (Will withdraw from OPEC in Jan 2019),
- Saudi Arabia(the de facto leader),
- United Arab Emirates, and
- Gabon has rejoined OPEC in July 2016
- Indonesia left OPEC in November 2016
- It operates on the principle of unanimity, and one member, one vote
- OPEC sets production targets for its member nations and generally, when OPEC production targets are reduced, oil prices increase
- As of 2015, the 15 countries accounted for 43 percent of global oil productionand 73 percent of the world’s “proven” oil reserves, giving OPEC a major influence on global oil prices.
- OPEC decisions have come to play a prominent role in the global oil market and international relations
- IBSA stands for India-Brazil-South Africa
- Aims at galvanizing South-South cooperation
- All Developing Democracies
- The forum provides the three countries with a platform to engage in discussions for cooperation in the field of agriculture, trade, culture, and defence among others.
- IBSA was formalised and launched through the adoption of the “Brasilia Declaration” in 2003
- Brasilia Declaration (2003) : Approved urgent need for reforms in the United Nations, especially the Security Council.
- IORA stands for Indian Ocean Rim Association
- It consists of coastal states bordering the Indian Ocean
- The IORA is a regional forum which bring together representatives of Government, Business and Academia, for promoting co-operation and closer interaction among them
- 21 member states : South Africa, Mozambique, Tanzania, Kenya, Madagascar, Comoros, Mauritius, Seychelles, Iran, Oman, UAE, Yemen, India, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Malaysia, Indonesia, Singapore, Thailand, Australia and Somalia.
- Maldives, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, Myanmar are not members
- Secretariat of IORA is located at Ebene, Mauritius.
- The organisation was first established as Indian Ocean Rim Initiative in Mauritius on March 1995 and formally launched in 1997 by the conclusion of a multilateral treaty known as the Charter of the Indian Ocean Rim Association for Regional Co-operation
- Current chairmanship : Indonesia
- Map: (Somalia is not shown in this. Add that) (Taken from Wikipedia. Not up to scale. For educational purpose only)
- The 2017 Indian-Ocean Rim Association (IORA) Summit (March 5-7, 2017) was the first IORA Summit. Held in Jakarta, Indonesia.
- Theme was “Strengthening Maritime Cooperation for a Peaceful, Stable and Prosperous Indian Ocean”
BIMSTEC stands for Bay of Bengal Initiative for Multi-Sectoral Technical and Economic Cooperation.
It is an international organisation involving a group of countries in South Asia and South East Asia.
7 members :
- Sri Lanka
Established in 1997 in Bangkok
Bangladesh, India, Sri Lanka, and Thailand were founding members
HQ : Dhaka, Bangladesh
The main objective of BIMSTEC is technological and economic cooperation among south Asian and south east Asian countries along the coast of the bay of Bengal . Commerce, investment, technology, tourism, human resource development, agriculture, fisheries, transport and communication, textiles, leather etc. have been included in it
BIMSTEC uses the alphabetical order for the Chairmanship
Bhutan has never been chairman (Skipped itself)
Current chairmanship : Sri Lanka
Map (Taken from Wikipedia. Not up to scale. For educational purpose only):
Third Summit was held in Nay Pyi Taw, Myanmar in March 2014.
- Fourth Summit was held in Kathmandu, Nepal in 2018
The Indian Ocean Rim Association (IORA), formerly known as the Indian Ocean Rim Initiative and Indian Ocean Rim Association for Regional Cooperation (IOR-ARC), is an international organisation consisting of coastal states bordering the Indian Ocean.
- The IORA is a regional forum, tripartite in nature, bringing together representatives of Government, Business and Academia, for promoting co-operation and closer interaction among them.
- It is based on the principles of Open Regionalism for strengthening Economic Cooperation particularly on Trade Facilitation and Investment, Promotion as well as Social Development of the region.
- The Coordinating Secretariat of IORA is located at Ebene, Mauritius.
- The organisation was first established as Indian Ocean Rim Initiative in Mauritius on March 1995 and formally launched in 1997 by the conclusion of a multilateral treaty known as the Charter of the Indian Ocean Rim Association for Regional Co-operation.
- The Indian Ocean Rim Association (IORA) is an international organization with 21 Member States – Australia, Bangladesh, Comoros, India, Indonesia, Iran, Kenya, Madagascar, Malaysia, Mauritius, Mozambique, Oman, Seychelles, Singapore, Somalia (latest member – joined in 2014), South Africa, Sri Lanka, Tanzania, Thailand, UAE and Yemen.
Members are in Orange:
Objectives of IORA:
- To promote sustainable growth and balanced development of the region and member states.
- To focus on those areas of economic cooperation which provide maximum opportunities for development, shared interest and mutual benefits.
- To promote liberalisation, remove impediments and lower barriers towards a freer and enhanced flow of goods, services, investment, and technology within the Indian Ocean rim.
Colombo Declaration of IOR:
The delegates from 18 littoral states of the IOR have resolved to work towards making the region a “Drug Free Zone”. Major features:
- Narcotic drug trafficking in the IOR poses a threat to peace and security in the region and its possible link to organized crime and funding of terrorism.
- It stresses upon need for coastal states to cooperate more closely on enforcing maritime law, providing mutual legal assistance and sharing information in narcotic drug trafficking.
- It also calls for the expansion and development of communication through the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC’s) Indian Ocean Prosecutors Network.
- It called on the littoral states of the IOR to meet on an annual basis within the framework of the Southern Route Partnership (SRP) of Indian Ocean Forum on Maritime Crime (IOFMC).
- These states must assess and report on the drug trafficking threat in the IOR and develop a coordinated approach to counter such threats.
MoUs for cooperation in small and medium-sized enterprises (SME) sector:
- Finalise linkages and alliances amongst MSMEs organizations, associations and various institutions engaged in MSME development in IORA countries.
- Exchange best practices, programs and policies for MSME development.
- Exchange greater involvement of MSMEs in the global supply chain and increase their market access.
- Promote women and youth’s economic empowerment.
- Encourage synergies with the IORA forum.
2017 IORA Summit:
- The 2017 Indian-Ocean Rim Association (IORA) Summit (March 5-7, 2017) was the first IORA Summit.
- The leaders and representatives of the 21 member countries (including India) of the Indian Ocean Rim Association (IORA) have signed the Jakarta Concord – “Promoting Regional Cooperation for a Peaceful, Stable, and Prosperous Indian Ocean” that aims to lay the foundation and set the course for cooperation for the organization of Indian Ocean states in the coming years.
- In the document, the IORA states declared their commitment to promoting maritime safety in the region, enhancing trade and investment cooperation in the region, promoting sustainable fisheries management and development, enhancing disaster risk management in the region, strengthening academic, science and technology cooperation, fostering tourism and cultural exchanges, Blue Economy, and empowering women in the economy.
Delhi Declaration on Renewable Energy
- It calls for collaboration among IORA member states in meeting growing demand for renewable energy in Indian Ocean littorals, development of common renewable energy agenda for Indian Ocean region (IOR) and promote regional capacity building.
- It also calls for promotion of technology development and transfer, strengthening of public private partnerships (PPP) in renewable energy and collaboration among IORA member states and member nations of International Solar Alliance (ISA).
- IORA member countries also resolved to collaborate with International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA). They will also collaborate with ISA member nations to exchange knowledge and share views and potential interests in renewable energy sector paved by MoU signed between IORA and ISA with focus on joint capacity-building programs, R&D activities in solar energy and exchange of best practices.
- IORA member nations and IRENA also agreed to undertake expansion of Global Renewable Energy Atlas, world’s largest-ever joint renewable resource data project, coordinated by IRENA. This will help in creating Indian Ocean region’s first and most comprehensive map and database which can be used to tap sizable renewable energy potential of region and collaborate on opportunities available under International Renewable Energy Learning Platform (IRELP).