Cyclone warnings

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The four stages of cyclone warnings in India are:

  • The First Stage warning Pre Cyclone Watch, issued 72 hours in advance. It contains an early warning about the development of a cyclonic disturbance in the north Indian Ocean, its likely intensification into a tropical cyclone and the coastal belt likely to experience adverse weather.
  • The second stage warning is Cyclone Alert, is issued at least 48 hrs in advance of the expected commencement of adverse weather over the coastal areas. It contains information about the location and intensity of the storm likely direction of its movement, intensification, coastal districts likely to experience adverse weather and advice to fishermen, the general public, media and disaster managers.

 

Stage of warning

Colour code

Cyclone Alert

Yellow.

Cyclone Warning

Orange.

Post-landfall outlook

Red.

  • The Third Stage warning is Cyclone Warning, issued at least 24 hours in advance of the expected commencement of adverse weather over the coastal areas and the landfall point is forecasted at this stage.
  • The Fourth Stage of warning is Post Landfall Outlook and it gives likely direction of movement of the cyclone after its landfall and adverse weather likely to be experienced in the interior areas.

Even though there is no cyclonic situation for Odisha, Seven districts of Odisha have been put on alert and the weather in Odisha would be cloudy and dry.

Mount Etna Volcano

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Mount Etna Volcano

  • Mount Etna is Europe’s highest and most active volcano outside the Caucasus.
  • Mount Etna is an active stratovolcano on the east coast of Sicily, Italy.
  • The last major eruption was in 1992.
  • The volcano lies above the convergent plate margin between the African Plate and the Eurasian Plate. 
  • Mount Etna is in an almost constant state of activity.
  • United Nations has designated Mount Etna as a Decade Volcano and it was added to the list of UNESCO World Heritage Sites.
  • Why in news? It has erupted again.

Mount Soputan volcano

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  • It is a volcano in Central Indonesia.
  • It erupted on 16th December 2018, sending ash about 7.5 km high in the sky.
  • Mount Soputan erupted twice on the same day, forcing local residents to move to safer places. 
  • Mount Soputan volcano is one of the most active volcanoes of Indonesia.
  • It is located on the Sulawesi island in Indonesia.
  • The country of Indonesia is an archipelago which is highly prone to earthquakes and volcanoes as it is located on the “the Pacific Ring of Fire”.  

Cyclone Phethai

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  • Cyclone Pethai has emerged as a deep depression in the Bay of Bengal around 900 kms off Chennai on 15 December 2018. 
  • It was expected to bring heavy rainfalls in the coastal areas of north Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Chhattisgarh and Odisha.

 

How a cyclone gets its name?

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How a cyclone gets its name?

  • Tropical cyclones passing over the northern part of the Indian Ocean are named by eight countries in the region, namely India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Maldives, Myanmar, Oman and Thailand.
  • The process only began in 2004, four years after World Meteorological Organization agreed in principle to allow them to name cyclones originating in the Bay of Bengal and Arabian Sea.
  • The alphabet system is used to designate the name of a cyclone, which means the name of the year’s first cyclone begins with A.
  • Previously, till 1979, cyclones were only given female names. Male names were only introduced in the same year.
  • World Meteorological Organization (WMO) maintains the database of cyclone/hurricane/typhoon names.
  • There are six lists of names used in rotation and they are recycled every six years.
  • The names are picked from this pre-designated list and are usually familiar with the people living in the region. India has so far contributed the following names: Agni, Bijli, Akash, Jal, Lehar, Megh, Sagar and Vayu.

Tsunami

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  • Tsunamis are large waves that approach crashing on coasts due to seafloor movement, majorly associated with landslides or earthquakes.
  • The word “tsunami” gets its name from the Japanese “tsu” means harbor and “nami” means wave.
  • Tsunami is chain of huge waves created by disturbance created underwater.
  • These waves are normally associated with earthquakes taking place under or around the ocean.
  • Other causes of Tsunami may be submarine landslides, coastal rock falls, volcanic eruptions or extra-terrestrial collision.
  • Like many other natural disasters, it is difficult to predict tsunamis but it can be suggested that seismically active areas are more at risk. Tsunami waves are highly dangerous and generally look like strong walls of water.
  • The strong waves can attack seashore for hours, thereby destructing thousands of lives.

 

tsunami1

Mahanadi River

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  • Mahanadi is major river in East Central India.
  • It drains an area of around 141,600 square kilometres and has total course of 858 kilometres.
  • It flows through Chhattisgarh and Odisha.
  • It originates from highlands of Chhattisgarh through collection of array of streams and reaches Bay of Bengal.
  • Its left bank tributaries are Shivnath, Mand, Ib, Hasdeo and right bank are Ong, parry river, Jonk, Telen.  
  • Mahanadi valley is known for its fertile soil and flourishing agriculture. Hirakud Dam across the river is longest major earthen dam in India.

Blood Moon

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ias4sure.com - Blood Moon

 

  • Total lunar eclipses are sometimes called blood moons because of the reddish orange glow the moon takes on.
  • The word “eclipse” means to obscure.
  • When the moon passes between the Earth and the sun, it’s called a solar eclipse.
  • When the Earth passes between the sun and the moon, it is a lunar eclipse.
  • The Moon does not have any light of its own—it shines because its surface reflects sunlight. During a total lunar eclipse, the Earth moves between the Sun and the Moon and cuts off the Moon’s light supply. When this happens, the surface of the Moon takes on a reddish glow instead of going completely dark.
  • The reason why the Moon takes on a reddish color during totality is a phenomenon called Rayleigh scattering. It is the same mechanism responsible for causing colorful sunrises and sunsets, and for the sky to look blue.

 

El-Nino

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El Nino:

  • The El Nino refers to a cyclical warming of the Central and Eastern Equatorial Pacific that frequently corresponds to a drought in India.
  • The warming of ocean causes huge changes in wind directions which bring less rain to south-east Asia and Indian subcontinent, while increasing rain in other parts of the world.

La Nina:

The La Nina is the opposite of the El Nino and brings good rains over the subcontinent.

El Nino Impact:

  • El-Nino disturbs the atmospheric conditions across the world. 
  • El-Nino occurs every two-to-seven years with very strong El Niño’s occurring about every 15 years results in droughts, floods, wildfires, dust and snow storms, fish kill, and even elevated risks of civil conflicts.
  • The El-Nino is measured by studying the averages sea surface temperature anomalies over the central-eastern tropical Pacific. 

How does El Nino impacts India?

There is a correlation between strong El-Nino and weak monsoon or strong La Nina and strong monsoon in India. Weak monsoon last year was attributed to strong El-Nino.

El-Nino Impact on atmosphere:

  • According to recent study conducted by scientists, the monster El Nino of 2014-16 caused over 3 billion tonnes of carbon to get released into the atmosphere, pushing carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration to record levels.
  • The study was based on analysis of data collected by NASA’s Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 (OCO-2) satellite, which measures level of CO2 in the atmosphere.
  • The El Nino led to excessive carbon dioxide releases in three ways. They are
    1. Hot weather and drought caused extensive wildfires in south-east Asia,
    2. Drought in the Amazon rainforest stunted plant growth, reducing the amount of carbon they absorb while growing
    3. Warmer weather and near normal rainfall in Africa caused forests to exhale more CO2.
  • The rate of growth of CO2 in the atmosphere had hit an all-time high of 2.94 parts per million per year in 2015 and slightly below that at 2.89 ppm per year in 2016. In other words, CO2 was being added to the atmosphere at a much higher rate than ever before even though carbon emissions were flat