Women : Facts and Issues

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  • UN report  ” Cyber violence against women and girls” – 73% women reported facing violence online.
  • Stalkers and abusers online take advantage of anonymity and are encouraged by viral nature of the online medium which provides instant fame.
  • Gender Development Index: 132ndrank
  • Gender Equality Index: 127th rank
  • Suffers from one of the lowest sex ratios (940 in 2011) in South Asia
  • Gender ratio on the electoral rolls: 800 (almost)
  • Women representation increased from 4.4% in first Lok Sabha election in 1952 to 11.9% in the 16th Lok Sabha in 2014. Global average is 22.9%.
  • On average, women are paid 34% less than men in India. This gender wage gap is highest in world.

The obstacles to political empowerment are mainly in three areas :

  1. Registration as voter,
  2. Actual participation in voting,
  3. Contesting as candidate

General elections of 2014 :

  • Women’s turnout shot up from 55.82 to 65.63 per cent — a jump of nearly 20 per cent
  • 16 states- Outnumbered their male counterparts
  • Gender gap- Used to be higher than 10 per cent, came down to an all-time low of 1.46 per cent

Participation of women as candidates :

India is way behind more backward countries of South Asia; even conservative Muslim countries like Afghanistan, Pakistan and Bangladesh have higher female representation

Breakthrough: The enactment of the 73rd and 74th amendments to the Constitution in 1992

2009: The Union cabinet approved an increase in reservation for women from 33 to 50 per cent in Panchayati raj institutions

Bill for women’s reservation in legislatures: Been pending in Parliament

Government Initiatives:

  • NARI Portal: The NARI portal will provide information to women on issues affecting their lives.
  • e-Samvad Portal: The MWCD also launched the portal to provide platform for NGOs and Civil Societies to interact with the ministry.

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Climate Change Facts

Complete Package for Civil Service Preparation by self study :

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* The MCQ Factory (TMF)
* Prelims Guidance Program 2021
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  • Global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of G20 countries are continuing to increase
  • Between 1990 and 2013, the absolute carbon dioxide emissions of G20 countries, which account for three-fourths of global CO2 emissions, went up by 56%
  • To be in line with a 2°C-compatible trajectory by 2035, G20 countries face an investment gap of almost $ 340 billion/year in the power sector
  • The globally averaged concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere reached to 400 parts per million (ppm) for the first time in 2015 : WMO
  • From 2001-2014, 25% of all accidental deaths in India due to unnatural causes happened as a result of extreme weather events. Most deaths reported were due to lightning (40%), followed by extreme precipitation (24%), heatwave (20%) and cold wave (15%).


Recent Data about India:

  • Trends in global CO2 and total greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions show that India’s emissions have gone up by 4.7% in 2016
  • For most major GHG emitters in the world, the emission figures have gone down, barring India and Indonesia
  • Nearly 90 percent of the country’s coal-fired power generation capacity is in violation of Sulphur Dioxide (SO2) emission limits notified two years ago.


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