Nuclear triad capability of India

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  • India is sixth Nation in the world (after US, Russia, France, China and UK) to possess Nuclear Triad.
  • It means that India is capable of delivering nuclear weapons by aircraft, land based ballistic missiles and submarine launched missiles.
  • India Army has strong arsenal of land based ICBM (intercontinental ballistic missile).
  • It includes Agni series, Prithvi series, Prahar Missile, Shaurya Missile, supersonic Brahmos and subsonic Nirbhay missiles. Indian Airforce (IAF) operates Jaguars aircrafts which are designed for deep penetration strike and can carry nuclear bomb.
  • Besides, IAF also has SU 30 MKI and Rafale aircrafts which can also be used to deliver nuclear weapons.
  • Indian Navy now has its own nuclear powered ballistic missile submarine INS Arihant capable of delivering nuclear weapons.

Prithvi Defence Vehicle (PDV) missile

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  • Prithvi Defence Vehicle (PDV) missile has been developed by indigenously by DRDO.
  • It is two-stage missile and both stages are powered by solid propellants.
  • It is intended to replace the existing Prithvi Air Defence (PAD) in PAD/Advanced Air Defence (AAD) combination.
  • It is designed for engaging targets in exo-atmosphere region at altitude 50 km of earth’s atmosphere.
  • It is guided by high-accuracy Inertial Navigation System (INS) supported by Redundant Micro Navigation System for estimating point of interception.
  • The missile is also fitted with Imaging Infrared (IIR) seeker, developed by DRDO, to distinguish between incoming warheads and decoys.

Prahaar Missile

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  • It is a surface-to-surface short-range tactical ballistic missile.
  • Solid-fuelled
  • Developed by DRDO
  • It has operational range of 150 km and flight altitude of 35 km.
  • It is quick-reaction, all-weather, all-terrain, highly accurate battlefield support tactical missile with advance manoeuvring capability.
  • It is capable of carrying multiple types of warheads weighing around 200 kg and neutralizing wide variety of targets.

 

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Long Range Surface-to-Air Missile (LRSAM)

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  • LRSAM has long-range engagement capability to penetrate deep water and land to intercept all types of aerial targets like subsonic and supersonic missiles, fighter aircraft, maritime patrolling aircraft (MPA), helicopter and sea skimming missiles.
  • It is capable of countering newest generation anti-ship missiles.
  • Indian Navy has decided to equip its all naval ships such as INS Kolkata, INS Kochi, and INS Chennai guided missile destroyers with Barak 8 LRSAM for air and missile defence.
  • Barak 8 LRSAM has been jointly developed by DRDO and IAI, Israel to be launched from ship.
  • It possesses high degree of manoeuvrability at target interception range.
  • It has maximum speed of Mach 2 with maximum operational range of 70 km (which has been increased to 100 km).

 

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HELINA

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ias4sure.com - HELINA

 

  • HELINA is helicopter launched version known of NAG ATGM, designed and developed indigenously for Indian Army under integrated guided missile development programme (IGMDP).
  • It is manufactured by India’s sole missile producer, state-owned Bharat Dynamics Limited.
  • HELINA is one of the most advanced Anti-Tank Weapons in the world.
  • It works on “fire and forget” principle and operates in Lock on Before Launch mode.
  • It has operational range of 7-10km (after air-launched).
  • It is equipped with highly advanced Imaging Infrared Radar (IIR) seeker along with integrated avionics.
  • It also possesses advanced passive homing guidance system.
  • It has been designed mainly to destroy modern main battle tanks and other heavily armoured targets.

Defence : Strategic Partnership Guidelines

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Strategic Partnership Guidelines
  • SP model aims to revitalise defence industrial ecosystem and progressively build indigenous capabilities in private sector to design, develop and manufacture complex weapon system for future needs of armed forces.
  • It lay emphasis on incentivisation of transfer of niche technology and higher indigenous content.
  • The SP model has four segments — submarines, single engine fighter aircraft, helicopters and armoured carriers/main battle tanks  which will be specifically opened up for the private sector.
  • Under this model, one Indian private company will be selected in each segment which will tie-up with shortlisted global equipment manufacturers to manufacture platforms in India through technology transfer under Make in India.
  • All procurements under the SP model would be executed by specially constituted Empowered Project Committees to “provide focussed attention and ensure timely execution.”
 
Significance
  • It is considered as major step towards boosting private sector participation in domestic defence manufacturing.
  • The policy had come into effect in May 2017 but progress was delayed due to lack of specific guidelines.
  • These guidelines lay emphasis on incentivisation of transfer of niche technology and higher indigenous content from global majors, who in collaboration with Indian partners are ready to make India regional and global defence manufacturing hub.
  • It will give major fillip towards encouraging self-reliance and aligning defence sector with the ‘Make in India ‘ initiative.
 
NOTE : Mention SPG in answer related to Make in India, Defence Indigenisation etc.

Strategic Trade Authorization-1 (STA-1)

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Context:
  • United States has designated India as Strategic Trade Authorization-1 (STA-1) country that will allow country to buy highly advanced and cutting-edge sensitive technologies from America.
  • This coveted status brings India in par with US’s closest allies and partners such as NATO.
 
What is STA-1?
  • STA-1 designation authorizes export, re-export and transfer (in-country) of specified items on Commerce Control List to destinations posing a low risk of unauthorised or impermissible uses.
  • Currently there are 36 countries on STA-1 list.
  • India is only South Asian country to be on the list. Other Asian countries designated as STA-1 are Japan and South Korea.
 
What are the benefits of having STA-1 designation to India?
  • Under STA-1, India and US have reached understanding under which India will receive license-free access to wide range of dual-use technologies in conjunction with steps that India has committed to take to advance its export control objectives.
  • STA-1 treatment will expand scope of technology exports subject to Export Administration Regulations (EAR) that can be made to India without individual licenses.
  • It will further enhance bilateral defence trade relationship and result in a greater volume of US exports to India.
  • It will allow US companies to more efficiently export much wider range of products to Indian high technology and military customers.
  • It will benefit US manufacturers while continuing to protect its national security.
  • It will provide India greater supply chain efficiency, both for defence and for other high-tech products that will increase activity with US systems, interoperability of systems and will reduce time and resources needed to get licensing approved.
  • It will be also competitive advantage for US, in terms of supplying those kinds of products to India.
  • This new designation reflects India’s membership in three of four multilateral export control regimes.

 

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National Advanced Surface-to-Air Missile System-II (NASAMS-II)

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  • India is in talks with United States to procure NASAMS-II
  • It features new 3D mobile surveillance radars and 12 missile launchers for quicker reaction.
  • NASAMS-II is highly adaptable mid-range solution for any operational air defence requirement.
  • It provides tailorable, state-of-the-art defence system that can maximise the ability to quickly identify, engage and destroy current and evolving enemy aircraft, UAV or emerging cruise missile threats.

NASAMS-II-Info

Significance for India
India’s purchase of NASAMS-II will help in preventing 9/11-type on NCT Delhi. It will also complement India’s other systems such as the medium and long-range surface-to-air missile (SAM) systems under procurement. With this, India will join league of nations including US, Russia and Israel etc. who have their own missile defence systems to protect their national capital regions.
 
India’s Air Defence:
  • India is deploying multi-tiered air defence network to fully secure its airspace from incoming fighter aircraft, missiles and unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV).
  • It is also in advanced stage of talks with Russia for procurement of very long range S-400 air defence systems.
  • Apart from these imports, Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) is in the final stages of developing its two-tier Ballistic Missile Defence (BMD) system which is designed to track and destroy nuclear missiles both inside (endo) and outside (exo) earth’s atmosphere.
  • Phase-I of indigenous BMD is expected to be deployed soon.

Spike Missile

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  • Spike is an Israeli anti-tank missile.
  • It is man-portable fire-and-forget missile.
  • It is an anti-tank guided missile.
  • India is likely to soon finalise with Israel purchase of a batch of Spike anti-tank guided missiles.

 

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Barak Missile

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  • Barak is a Hebrew word for lightening
  • It is an Indian-Israeli Long Range surface-to-air missile
  • It is nuclear capable ballistic missile
  • It is designed to defend against any type of airborne threat including aircraft, helicopters, anti-ship missiles, and UAVs as well as cruise missiles and combat jets out to a maximum range of 70 km
  • It has maximum speed of Mach 2 with maximum operational range of 70 km (which has been increased to 100 km).
  • Both maritime and land-based versions of the system exist
  • Jointly developed by Israel Aerospace Industries (IAI) and DRDO