National Commission for Homeopathy bill, 2018

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The Union Cabinet has approved the National Commission for Homeopathy bill, 2018.

Aim:

  • The National Commission for Homeopathy seeks to replace the existing regulator Central Council of Homoeopathy.
  • The bill aims at bringing reforms in the medical education of homoeopathy in line with the National Medical Commission proposed for setting up for allopathy system of medicine.
  • The National Commission for Homeopathy aims to promote transparency and accountability.

Features of the Bill

The salient features of the draft National Commission for Homeopathy bill are:

  • Constitution of a national commission with three autonomous boards.
  • The Homoeopathy Education Board to be vested with the responsibility of overseeing the Homeopathy education in the country.
  • The board of assessment and rating to assess and grant recognition to educational institutions of Homoeopathy.
  • Board of ethics and registration of practitioners of Homoeopathy to maintain National Register and deal with ethical issues relating to practice.
  • The bill also proposes a common entrance exam and an exit exam which all graduates will have to clear to get practicing licenses.
  • The bill proposes a teacher’s eligibility test to assess the standard of teachers before appointment and promotions.

National Commission for Indian Systems of Medicine (NCIM) Bill, 2018

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The Union Cabinet has approved the National Commission for Indian Systems of Medicine (NCIM) Bill, 2018.

Aim:

  • The bill seeks to replace the existing regulator, the Central Council for Indian Medicine (CCIM).
  • The bill aims at bringing reforms in the medical education of Indian systems in line with the National Medical Commission proposed for setting up for allopathy system of medicine.
  • The National Commission for Indian Systems of Medicine aims to promote transparency and accountability.

Features of the Bill

The salient features of the National Commission for Indian Systems of Medicine (NCIM) Bill, 2018 are:

  • The bill provides for the constitution of a National Commission with four autonomous boards.
  • The Board of Ayurveda would be responsible for overseeing the overall education of Ayurveda.
  • The Board of Unani, Siddha and Sowarigpa will be responsible for overseeing the overall education of Unani, Siddha and Sowarigpa.
  • The bill provides for two common boards, Board of Assessment and Rating and Board of Ethics and Registration.
  • The Board of Assessment and Rating would be responsible to assess and grant permission to educational institutions of Indian systems of Medicine.
  • The Board of Ethics and Registration of practitioners of Indian systems of medicine would maintain National Register and deal with ethical issues relating to practice under the National Commission for Indian Medicine,
  • The bill also proposes a common entrance exam and an exit exam which all graduates will have to clear to get practicing licenses.
  • The bill proposes a teacher’s eligibility test to assess the standard of teachers before appointment and promotions.

Muslim Women (Protection of Rights on Marriage) Act (Triple Talaq)

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Bill:

  • Bill has been passed by Lok Sabha.
  • The bill would replace the ordinance passed in the month of September.
  • The Bill makes all declaration of talaq, including in written or electronic form (text message, email etc) to be void and illegal i.e. not enforceable in law.
  • It defines talaq as talaq-e-biddat or any other similar form of talaq pronounced by Muslim husband resulting in instant and irrevocable divorce to his wife.
  • It refers Talaq-e-biddat to practice under Muslim personal laws where pronouncement of word ‘talaq’ thrice in one sitting by Muslim husband to his wife results in instant and irrevocable divorce.
  • Offence and penalty: It makes declaration of talaq a cognizable and non-bailable offence i.e. offence for which police officer may arrest an accused person without warrant. Moreover, a Muslim husband declaring triple talaq can be imprisoned for up to 3 years along with a fine.
  • Declaration of Triple Talaq would be a cognizable offence, attracting up to three years’ imprisonment with a fine. The bill states that the offence will be cognizable only if information relating to the offence is given by the married woman (against whom talaq has been declared), or any person related to her by blood or marriage.
  • Under the provisions of the bill, the Magistrate may grant bail to the accused only after hearing the woman (against whom talaq has been pronounced), and if the Magistrate is satisfied that there are reasonable grounds for granting bail.
  • The bill also states that the offence may be compounded by the Magistrate upon the request of the woman (against whom talaq has been declared). The bill empowers the Magistrate to determine terms and conditions of the compounding.
  • Allowance: It entitles Muslim woman against whom triple talaq has been declared to seek subsistence allowance from her husband for herself and for her dependent children. First Class Magistrate will decide this allowance amount.
  • Custody of minor children: Muslim woman against whom triple talaq has been declared, is entitled to seek custody of her minor children. First Class Magistrate will make determination of custody of her minor children.

Why it was done?

  • In August 2017 landmark verdict, Supreme Court had banned practice of “triple talaq” in which Muslim men unilaterally divorce their wives by uttering talaq three times in quick succession, calling it “unconstitutional”.
  • As per Supreme Court pronouncement, the practice of “triple talaq” is un-Islamic and “arbitrary” and was not integral part of religious practice.
  • It also violated Article 14 (Equality before law) and Article 21 of Indian Constitution.
  • It was alleged that practise of triple talaq adversely impact rights of women to a life of dignity and is against constitutional principles such as gender equality, secularism, international laws etc.
  • It also undermines gender equality which is a sacred principle of our constitution and modern society.
  • Even 21 Islamic theocratic countries including Pakistan, Afghanistan have abolished it.

Concerns Raised:

  • Punish the husband only if the woman files a complaint.
  • Instant talaq should be an offence but not a cognisable one.
  • They fear that the provisions have the potential to adversely impact Muslim women who are victims of instant talaq and result in greater harassment.
  • The purpose of this bill is gender justice, and criminalisation in itself cannot serve this objective. Marriage is a civil matter.
  • As per 494 of the Indian Penal Code bigamy is non-cognisable and bailable offence. Violation of law through triple talaq should invite penalty and punishment accordingly and proportionately.

Cognizable offence

A cognizable offence is one for which a police officer may arrest an accused person without a warrant.

Compounding of offence

Compounding of offence refers to a procedure where the two sides agree to stop legal proceedings, and settle the dispute.

Consumer Protection Bill 2018

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The Lok Sabha has passed the Consumer Protection Bill, 2018 which will replace the Consumer Protection Act, 1986.  The Bill seeks to enforce consumer rights and to offer a mechanism for complaint redressal related to the deficiencies in goods and services.

Highlights of the Bill

  • The Consumer Disputes Redressal Commissions will be set up at District, State and National levels as per the bill passed.
  • The District Commissions will have the mandate to hear complaints having claim worth one crore rupees. In the Consumer Protection Act, 1986 this limit was 20 lakh rupees.
  • The limit of the Commissions’ at the State level enhanced from 1 crore rupees to 15 crore rupees.
  • Complaints above 15 crore rupees worth of claim will be settled by the National Commission.
  • The Consumer Protection Bill, 2018 has provisions for stringent punishments in the matters of food adulterations.
  • The Bill has the provisions to protect those consumers who use new digital technologies likes e-commerce and online shopping.
  • The Bill seeks to establish a central consumer protection authority (CCPA) which will be tasked with promoting, protecting and enforcing consumer rights.

The main objective of the said bill is to protect of the interests of consumers and to provide effective administration and timely settle consumer disputes. Now, the bill will move to Rajya Sabha for passage.

Should celebrities be held responsible for endorsements?

A parliamentary panel has suggested legal teeth to make celebrities accountable for misleading advertisements. The panel has suggested legal teeth to the Advertising Standards Council of India (ASCI) to curb misleading ads, besides proposing severe penalties, jail and cancellation of licence of those involved in food adulteration. (Recent example: Dhoni endorsement of Amrapali group and subsequent social media backlash)

What Group of Ministers has recommended on celebrity endorsement?

A high-level Group of Ministers (GoM) has approved imposing a heavy fine and ban on celebrities who endorse products making unrealistic and dodgy claims. They recommended:

  • First time offender celebrities should be fined Rs 10 lakh and banned for one year.
  • Second and subsequent offenders should be fined Rs 50 lakh and banned for up to 3 year.
  • Dropped Standing committee’s proposal of jail term to celebrities found guilty for misleading endorsement.

What is the issue related to celebrity endorsement?

The issue of accountability of celebrities as brand endorsers was in spotlight after the ban on Nestle India Ltd’s Maggi Noodles over inadequate safety standards and high levels of lead and Monosodium glutamate (MSG). The ban was subsequently lifted. Besides this, some other celebrities, too had faced public ire for endorsing brands that did not meet expectations

Background:

The CPA, 1986 was enacted considering the large number of consumers in India who are illiterate and are susceptible to exploitation by unscrupulous businesses. Hence, a major objective of this Act was to make consumers aware of the various quality-control measures (e.g. Hallmark, BIS-mark etc.) being employed for the products and the rights available to them to seek Redressal against unfair practices.

Although, the impacts have been largely positive as is visible in the increased consumer awareness and adherence of businesses to the quality-control standards, there have been certain issues as well. The movement has left many rural regions untouched. Also, the slow progress of addressing the cases has resulted in large-scale pendency.

Provisions for addressing new-age cases such as e-commerce are also non-existent. The recent amendments proposed to the CPA, 1986 are largely progressive in the sense that it seeks to decrease the time required to seek Redressal by including provisions for online filling of complaints and setting a time limit of 21 days for scrutiny of cases before admission, effectively leveraging the District Forums by increasing their pecuniary jurisdiction from Rs.20 to Rs.50 lakh, and increasing the penalties to 10 times the cost of goods provided

The proposed amendments have the following lacuna

  1. The proposed digitalization cannot be implemented without giving appropriate equipment’s, training and manpower. This has been neglected and without infrastructural support, such positions are likely to exist for namesake only.
     
  2. The flexibility of clubbing district forums is challengeable as the existing forums often don’t suffice for the huge number of cases that are brought to it. Often these forums are located in inaccessible places and deny ease of justice.
     
  3. Government has empowered the state government for the selection process,  without realizing that the main problem in non-filling of seats is lack of remuneration for the job. This process is likely to merely shift buck and not solve the problem by incentivizing the existing three tiered structure created.
     
  4. The increasing of age and experience requirements (45 years and 40 years respectively) is likely to cripple the organisation facing manpower crises. Further, it  is unlikely that senior judges would like to have this job instead of the regular courts.
     
  5. The laggard of cases has been built up due to unnecessary involvement of lawyers and legal restrictions. Instead of solving that, centre has proposed a monitoring mechanism. This may overcomplicate the chaos by setting mandatory requirements of filing documents.
     
  6. The state and national commissions have been given a discretionary power to select experts on case to case basis. This may lead to discrimination to those lacking in proper knowledge for utilization of the said facility and if the provision isn’t implemented in a proper manner, then delaying of justice and corruption

However, certain issues such as the appointment of mediators to settle disputes are contentious as this would lead to arm-twisting of the weaker parties and may encourage corruption. Also, the setting up of a Consumer Authority and absence of provisions to streamline the conducting of cases in courts may only lead to greater regulations and complexities. Addressing these issues is necessary to ensure that the new amendments bring about definitive improvements in the CPA.

Related Questions:

  • To what extent has the Consumer protection act succeeded in achieving its intended objective? Critically analyze the recently proposed amendments to strengthen the act. (200 Words)
  • Proposed amendments to the Consumer Protection Act will further erode consumers‘ rights instead of addressing existing lacunae. Critically analyse the amendments to the bill. (200 Words)

Source:

http://www.thehindu.com/todays-paper/tp-national/consumer-is-king-if-new-law-gets-nod/article19590721.ece

Arbitration and Conciliation (Amendment) Bill, 2018

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The Lok Sabha has passed Arbitration and Conciliation (Amendment) Bill, 2018 to help India become hub for domestic and global arbitration for settling commercial disputes. It seeks to amend Arbitration and Conciliation Act, 1996 which contains provisions to deal with domestic and international arbitration and defines law for conducting conciliation proceedings.

 

ias4sure.com - Arbitration and Conciliation (Amendment) Bill, 2018

Salient features of Bill

  • Arbitration Council of India (ACI): 
    • The Bill establishes ACI as an independent body for promotion of arbitration, mediation, conciliation and other alternative dispute redressal mechanisms.
    • It will frame policies for grading arbitral institutions and accrediting arbitrators, make policies for establishment, operation and maintenance of uniform professional standards for all alternate dispute redressal matters and maintain depository of arbitral judgments (awards) made in India and abroad.
  • Composition of ACI: 
    • It will consist of Chairperson who is either Judge of Supreme Court or Judge of High Court or Chief Justice of High Court or eminent person with expert knowledge in conduct of arbitration.
    • Its other members will include eminent arbitration practitioner, academician with experience in arbitration and government appointees.
  • Appointment of arbitrators: 
    • The Bill allows Supreme Court and High Courts to designate arbitral institutions, which parties can approach for appointment of arbitrators.
    • For international commercial arbitration, appointments will be made by institution designated by Supreme Court.
    • The institution designated by concerned High Court will make appointments for domestic arbitration appointments.
    • In case there are no arbitral institutions available, then concerned High Court Chief Justice can maintain panel of arbitrators to perform functions of arbitral institutions.
    • The application for appointment of arbitrator is required to be disposed of within 30 days.
  • Relaxation of time limits: 
    • The Bill proposed to remove time restriction for international commercial arbitrations.
    • Earlier under the parent Act, arbitral tribunals were required to make their award within period of 12 months for all arbitration proceedings.
  • Completion of written submissions: 
    • The Bill requires written claim and defence to claim in arbitration proceeding should be completed within six months of appointment of arbitrators.
    • Currently, there is no time limit to file written submissions before an arbitral tribunal.
  • Confidentiality of proceedings: 
    • The Bill provides that all details of arbitration proceedings will be kept confidential except for the details of the arbitral award in certain circumstances. 
    • Disclosure of the arbitral award will only be made where it is necessary for implementing or enforcing the award.

Child Adoptions : Amendment to Juvenile Justice Act

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Context:

  • The government introduced an amendment to the Juvenile Justice (JJ) Act, 2015, in the Lok Sabha to empower District Magistrates with the authority to grant adoption orders.

 

Details:

  • The Juvenile Justice (Care and Protection of Children) Amendment Bill, 2018, revises the provisions governing adoptions in the JJ Act by making changes to Section 56,58, 59, 60, 61, 63, 64 and 65, where the word “court” has been replaced by “District Magistrate.”
  • The changes are applicable for both domestic and international applications.
  • The bill also proposes the transfer of all adoption cases in various courts to the District Magistrates concerned.

 

Why was the amendment proposed?

  • The heavy workload of the courts had been resulting in “inordinate delay” in issuing adoption orders. as many as 629 cases relating to the passing of orders for adoption were pending in various courts across the country as on July 20, 2018
  • The amendment was proposed with the objective of avoiding pendency of cases.
  • The bill seeks to empower the district magistrates to issue orders for adoption in order to avert inordinate delay by the courts in doing the same.
  • It will make the adoption procedure faster for prospective parents, by avoiding delays in courts.

ias4sure.com - Child Adoptions Amendment to Juvenile Justice Act

 

Juvenile Justice Act 2015:

The Act came into effect from January 15, 2016, with comprehensive provisions for the children allegedly found to be in conflict with law as well as those in need of care and protection.

Commercial Courts, Commercial Division and Commercial Appellate Division of High Courts (Amendment) Bill, 2018

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The Act enables creation of commercial divisions in High Courts and commercial courts at district level to adjudicate commercial disputes such as disputes related to contracts for provision of goods and services and construction contracts. The amendment is aimed at improving ease of doing business in India.
ias4sure.com - Commercial Courts, Commercial Division and Commercial Appellate Division of High Courts (Amendment) Bill, 2018
 
Key Features of Bill
  • Reduction in pecuniary limits: Under the parent Act, commercial courts and commercial divisions in High courts can decide commercial disputes with value of at least Rs. 1 crore. The Bill reduces this limit to Rs. 3 lakh.
  • Establishment of certain commercial courts: The parent Act, empowers state governments to constitute commercial courts at district judge level, after consulting concerned High Court. It had barred such commercial courts to be constituted in cases where High Court has original jurisdiction to hear commercial cases. The Bill removes this bar and allows states to constitute commercial courts where High Courts have original jurisdiction.
  • Commercial Appellate Courts: The Bills allows state governments to notify commercial appellate courts at the district judge level in areas where High Courts do not have ordinary original civil jurisdiction. These Appellate Courts will hear appeals against order of commercial court below level of district judge.
  • Mediation: It introduces pre-institution mediation process in cases where no urgent, interim relief is contemplated. This aims to provide for opportunity to parties to resolve commercial disputes outside ambit of courts through authorities. This will also help in reinforcing investor’s confidence in the resolution of commercial disputes.
  • Counterclaims not to be transferred: The Bill removes provision of counterclaim in relation to transfer of suits in a commercial dispute of at least Rs. 1 crore in civil court.
 
 
What is the issue related to mediation?
  • Mandatory pre-litigation mediation in commercial disputes has been introduced by the recent Commercial Courts, Commercial Division and Commercial Appellate Division of High Courts (Amendment) Ordinance, 2018, which amends the Commercial Courts Act of 2015.
  • This amendment is expected to alter parties’ sense of responsibility in resolving disputes. Mandatory pre-litigation mediation puts the ball in the court of the parties involved, rather than looking at external agencies like courts, and urges them to engage with and resolve disputes.
 
The meaning of mediation
  • Mediation is a process of resolution of disputes by the parties to them. It involves discussion of the conflicts, moving out of the loop of allegations and counter-allegations, and assessing where interests lie in resolving the disputes.
  • Options for settlement are explored and a settlement is worked out through joint evaluation. The process is managed by a neutral person called the mediator, who may evaluate the disputes and weigh in on options for settlement (a variant called conciliation) but has no authority to impose a settlement.
  • The participation of the disputants is voluntary. The terms of settlement, if the parties do settle, are decided by the parties. The discussions are confidential.
 
Background
  • Mediation, and mandatory mediation specifically, is not new in India.
  • The Arbitration and Conciliation Act, 1996, makes a settlement arrived at through conciliation enforceable like a court decree.
  • Under the Code of Civil Procedure, judges can refer cases to mediation.
  • The Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises (MSME) Development Act, 2006, mandates conciliation when disputes arise on payments to MSMEs.
 
The Italian case
  • Italy, which faces a high rate of pendency of cases, has adopted what is referred to as ‘opt out’ mandatory mediation.
  • In 2010 and 2013, it introduced a law for pre-litigation mediation. Attempts to mediate were made mandatory for certain disputes (like partition and joint ownership of property) before a case was filed in court.
 
What lies ahead?
  • Pre-litigation mediation is an important step to improve the ease of doing business
  • The ordinance is an important step in mainstreaming mediation, but it is not enough.
  • Most disputes seek urgent orders for preservation of status quo or restraint orders on filing. With such an application, pre-litigation mediation could effectively be given a go-by.
  • There is a need for a comprehensive policy on mediation, rather than the abbreviated and disconnected steps so far.
  • This policy would encapsulate the process, the role and professional responsibilities of mediators, the rights and obligations of parties in the process, and the outcome of the mediation agreement.
  • When seen in the context of a deliberate and well-considered law, mediation as a process would be more credible to disputants, as has happened in the case of arbitration.

Negotiable Instruments (Amendment) Bill, 2017

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Bill is passed  to reduce the number of cheque dishonour cases pending in courts. The bill amends Negotiable Instruments Act, 1881 to primarily address issues of dishonour of cheques and deal with unnecessary delay in disposal of such cases.
 
What is a Negotiable Instrument?
  • It refers to any legal documents like cheques, promissory notes, bill of exchange etc which promises to pay bearer or holder of instrument or person whose name is written on instrument specific amount of money either on demand or after specified time i.e. on some future date.
  • The Negotiable Instruments Act, 1881 defines promissory notes, bills of exchange and cheques.
  • It also specifies penalties for bouncing of cheques and other violations with respect to such negotiable instruments.
 
Key Features of Bill
  • Interim compensation: 
    • The Bill inserts new Section 143 A in parent Act to allow court trying offence related to cheque bouncing to direct drawer (person who writes cheque) to pay interim compensation to complainant.
    • This compensation may be paid under certain circumstances, including where drawer pleads not guilty of accusation.
    • It will not exceed 20% of cheque amount and will be paid by drawer within 60 days of trial court’s order to pay such compensation.
  • Deposit in case of appeal: 
    • The Bill inserts another new Section 148-A in the parent act specifying that if drawer convicted in cheque bouncing case files appeal, appellate court may direct him to deposit minimum of 20% of fine or compensation awarded by trial court during conviction.
    • This amount will be in addition to any interim compensation paid by drawer during earlier trial proceedings.
  • Returning interim compensation: 
    • In case drawer is acquitted during trial or by appellate court, then court will direct complainant to return interim compensation (or deposit in case of an appeal case), along with interest.
    • This amount will be repaid within 60 days of court’s order.

ias4sure.com - Negotiable Instruments (Amendment) Bill, 2017

Prevention of Corruption (Amendment) Bill, 2018

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Parliament has passed Prevention of Corruption (Amendment) Bill, 2013 to amend various provisions of Prevention of Corruption Act (PCA), 1988. The amendment to PCA, 1988 was necessitated to review existing provisions to bring it in line with United Nations Convention against Corruption (UNCAC) as agreed by India.
 
Background
The amendments to PCA, 1988 were first brought by UPA government in 2013. The Bill was then referred to Parliamentary Standing Committee, Law Commission of India (LCI) and then in December 2015 to select committee. The report of select committee was submitted in 2016 and again it was moved in August 2017, but was not be taken up.
 
Key Features of Bill
  • Giving bribe made punishable offence: 
    • The Bill introduces offence of ‘giving a bribe’ as direct offence.
    • Person who is compelled to give bribe who reports matter to law enforcement authorities within seven days will not be charged with this offence.
  • Redefines Criminal misconduct: 
    • The bill redefines provisions related to criminal misconduct to only cover two types of offences viz. illicit enrichment (such as amassing of assets disproportionate to one’s known income sources) and fraudulent misappropriation of property.
  • Prior approval for investigation:
    • Prior approval of relevant Government or competent authority to conduct any investigation into offence alleged to have been committed by a public servant is made mandatory.
    • Such approval will be not necessary in cases that involve arrest of person on spot on charge of taking a bribe.
  • Trial Time limit: 
    • The bill set trail time period limit of two months if it is handled by special judge.
    • In case of delays, reasons for it must be recorded for every extension of six months obtained.
    • However, total period for completion of trial may not exceed four years.

 

PCA-features

Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code (Amendment) Bill, 2018

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Parliament has passed Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code (Amendment) Bill, 2018 to bring relief to the home buyers and MSMEs. The Bill replaces ordinance promulgated in this regard and amends the Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code, 2016.

ias4sure.com - Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code (Amendment) Bill, 2018

 

Background

  • Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code (IBC), 2016 provides time-bound process to resolution of insolvency among companies and individuals.
  • Insolvency is situation where individual or company is unable to repay their outstanding debt.
  • Government in November 2017 had set up Insolvency Law Committee to review IBC and identify issues in its implementation and suggest changes.
  • The Committee had made several recommendations such as exempting MSMEs from certain provisions of IBC, treating allottees under real estate project as financial creditors, reducing voting thresholds of committee of creditors (CoC), among others. Subsequently, President had promulgated Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code (Amendment) Ordinance, 2018 in June 2018 after approval of Central Government.

 

Key Features of Bill

  • Status of allottees: The Bill clarifies that allottee under real estate project i.e. buyer of under-construction residential or commercial property will be considered as financial creditor, as amount raised from allottees for financing real estate project has commercial effect of a borrowing.
  • Representative of financial creditors: It specifies that in certain cases, such as when debt is owed to a class of creditors, the financial creditors will be represented on committee of creditors by authorised representative. These representatives will vote on behalf of financial creditors as per prior instructions received from them.
  • Voting threshold of committee of creditors: The voting threshold for decisions of committee of creditors has been lowered from 75% to 51%. For certain key decisions of committee like appointment of resolution professional, approval of the resolution plan and increasing time limit for insolvency resolution process threshold has been reduced from 75% to 66%.
  • Ineligibility to be resolution applicant: Bill amends criteria which prohibits certain persons from submitting resolution plan. It provides that this criterion will not apply if such applicant is financial entity and not related party to debtor with certain exceptions. It specifies that such bar will apply if such guarantee has been invoked by creditor and remains unpaid.
  • Applicability of Code to Micro, Small, and Medium Enterprises (MSMEs): The Bill specifies that ineligibility criteria for resolution applicants regarding Non Performing Assets (NPAs) and guarantors will not be applicable to persons applying for resolution of MSMEs. It empowers Central government in public interest to modify or remove other provisions of IBC while applying them to MSMEs.
  • Withdrawal of submitted applications: The Bill increases vote required for withdrawal resolution application from National Company Law Tribunal (NCLT) after such process has been initiated by 90% vote of committee of creditors.